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On the extraction of RF fingerprints from LSTM hidden-state values for robust open-set detection

On the extraction of RF fingerprints from LSTM hidden-state values for robust open-set detection

Authors: Luke Puppo, Weng-Keen Wong, Bechir Hamdaoui, Abdurrahman Elmaghbub, Lucy Lin
Status: Final
Date of publication: 14 March 2024
Published in: ITU Journal on Future and Evolving Technologies, Volume 5 (2024), Issue 1, Pages 134-146
Article DOI : https://doi.org/10.52953/MOGL1293
Abstract:
New capabilities in wireless network security have been enabled by deep learning that leverages and exploits signal patterns and characteristics in Radio Frequency (RF) data captured by radio receivers to identify and authenticate radio transmitters. Open-set detection is an area of deep learning that aims to identify RF data samples captured from new devices during deployment (aka inference) that were not part of the training set; i.e. devices that were unseen during training. Past work in open-set detection has mostly been applied to independent and identically distributed data such as images. In contrast, RF signal data present a unique set of challenges as the data forms a time series with non-linear time dependencies among the samples. In this paper, we introduce a novel open-set detection approach for RF data-driven device identification that extracts its neural network features from patterns of the hidden state values within a Convolutional Neural Network Long Short-Term Memory (CNN+LSTM) model. Experimental results obtained using real datasets collected from 15 IoT devices, each enabled with LoRa, wireless-Wi-Fi, and wired-Wi-Fi communication protocols, show that our new approach greatly improves the area under the precision-recall curve, and hence, can be used successfully to monitor and control unauthorized network access of wireless devices.

Keywords: Deep learning, network authentication, open-set detection, radio frequency
Rights: © International Telecommunication Union, available under the CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO license.
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