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ITU-D Publications

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ This page features all ITU-D Publications that are released since 2023. Publications from previous years, can be found in the ITU-D publications archive.
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Collaborative digital regulation country review: South Africa's digital transformation and collaborative regulation  

Collaborative digital regulation country review: South Africa's digital transformation and collaborative regulation


As South Africa adopts reforms to further strengthen its economy across multiple sectors, this country review presents the policy, legislative, and governance frameworks that are enabling South Africa’s digital transformation. It includes a review of key institutions and collaborative digital regulation practices, as well as common themes related to digital sector policies and frameworks.


Publication Date: July 2024
GSR-24 Best Practice Guidelines  

GSR-24 Best Practice Guidelines

Helping to chart the course of transformative technologies for positive impact
We stand at the threshold of a digital revolution with profound implications for the future of our societies. Recognizing the nature of advances in transformative technologies, we need to commit to fostering an enabling regulatory environment where innovation thrives while minimizing risks and maximizing benefits.


Publication Date: July 2024
Measuring digital development - ICT Development Index 2024  

ICT Development Index 2024


The 2024 edition of ITU’s ICT Development Index (IDI) shows that progress has been made towards universal and meaningful connectivity – defined as the ability for everyone to go online under optimal conditions, at an affordable cost, anywhere and anytime they need – with low-income economies showing most improvement.


Publication Date: June 2024
Measuring digital development - Facts and Figures: Focus on Landlocked Developing Countries  

Measuring digital development - Facts and Figures: Focus on Landlocked Developing Countries


This special edition of ITU’s flagship Facts and Figures series coincides with the third United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries. This landmark event presents a once-in-a-decade opportunity to craft innovative solutions that can unlock the full potential of these nations.


Publication Date: April 2024
National E-waste Monitor: Botswana 2024  

National E-waste Monitor: Botswana 2024


This report examines the overall statistics of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) placed on the market (POM) and e-waste generation in Botswana. Botswana is currently making efforts to improve the regulatory framework regarding e-waste - an Integrated Waste Management Policy has been produced - as there is no specific regulatory instrument dealing with e-waste management, including data collection, in the country.


Publication Date: April 2024
National E-waste Monitor: Namibia 2024  

National E-waste Monitor: Namibia 2024


This report summarizes the outcomes obtained from the application of the international framework to measure e-waste statistics and from the use of e-waste tools as Namibia currently lacks the capacity to monitor e-waste quantities. Namibia faces two key challenges in terms of national e-waste recycling: large geographical distances to facilities and comparatively low current awareness among citizens.


Publication Date: April 2024
Benchmark of fifth-generation collaborative digital regulation 2023 – Global and regional trends  

Benchmark of fifth-generation collaborative digital regulation 2023 – Global and regional trends


The second in the series 'Benchmark for fifth generation collaborative digital regulation 2023: global and regional trends' is the analytical companion of the 2023 edition of the G5 Benchmark. The paper highlights the trends and findings on the evolution of digital regulation based on the latest dataset.


Publication Date: April 2024
Policy brief - The affordability of ICT services 2023  

Policy brief - The affordability of ICT services 2023


The Policy brief - The affordability of ICT services 2023 offers a concise overview of the cost of fixed and mobile broadband baskets worldwide. It finds that relative to income, the ICT services monitored by the ITU became more affordable in 2023 than ever before. As a result, in 2023, 114 economies had met the Broadband Commission affordability target set at 2 per cent of gross national income, up from 103 in 2022


Publication Date: March 2024
The Global E-waste Monitor 2024  

The Global E-waste Monitor 2024

The Global E-waste Monitor 2024 is the fourth edition of the Monitor. It is an indispensable reference tool for both policymakers and industry that shows the position of the world in terms of the global e-waste challenge.


Publication Date: March 2024
Measuring the Emissions and Energy Footprint of the ICT Sector: Implications for Climate Action  

Measuring the Emissions and Energy Footprint of the ICT Sector: Implications for Climate Action

This report compiles emissions data at a country level from publicly accessible sources within the thirty most emitting countries' telecommunications operators. Its goal ​is to unravel the emissions and energy usage patterns within the sector while exploring policy implications.​


Publication Date: March 2024
Measuring digital development – Facts and Figures: Focus on Small Island Developing States  

Measuring digital development – Facts and Figures: Focus on Small Island Developing States

The Facts and Figures: Focus on Small Island Developing States report shows that the growth of Internet use in SIDS since the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS3) held in 2014 was higher than the global growth; between 2014 – 2023, the annual growth rate in SIDS was 8.4 per cent, surpassing the global growth rate of 6.7 per cent.


Publication Date: March 2024
Telecommunication networks and infrastructure resilience assessment in Haiti  

Telecommunication networks and infrastructure resilience assessment in Haiti

Disasters have not only affected lives but have also caused extensive damage to Haiti’s telecommunications infrastructure. Addressing the aftermath goes beyond immediate emergency telecommunication assistance.


Publication Date: March 2024
Assessment of skills supply and demand in the digital economy in Nigeria, including digital skills  

Assessment of skills supply and demand in the digital economy in Nigeria, including digital skills

This report presents the findings of an assessment of current and emerging skill supply and demand in the digital economy in Nigeria with the view to identifying gaps, opportunities and detecting specific needs that, if addressed, can generate new employment opportunities for young people.


Publication Date: February 2024
Best practices being adopted on fit-for-purpose digital regulation tools for consumer protection  

Best practices being adopted on fit-for-purpose digital regulation tools for consumer protection

This is the first interim (annual) deliverable for Question 6/1 of ITU-D Study Group for the study period 2022-2025. It focuses on regulatory mechanisms for the digital ecosystem that are fit-for-purpose.


Publication Date: February 2024
Cybersecurity assurance practices  

Cybersecurity assurance practices

The World Telecommunication Development Conference, held in Kigali in 2022, reviewed the mandate of Study Question 3/2, which focuses on sharing experiences on cybersecurity practices. This report reflects the contributions and discussions from the Question 3/2 meetings and a dedicated workshop on cybersecurity assurance practices.


Publication Date: February 2024
Digital policy action areas for a connected ASEAN  

Digital policy action areas for a connected ASEAN

The ASEAN Digital Master Plan 2025 (ADM 2025) stands as a visionary blueprint for the future of the ASEAN region. Recognizing the pivotal role of technology in shaping the socio-economic fabric of the region, ADM 2025 charts a course towards a more connected, innovative and inclusive ASEAN.


Publication Date: February 2024
Égalité de genre dans la politique numérique au Burundi  

Gender equality in digital policy in Burundi (French)

This national report provides an overview of the extent to which gender is taken into account in Burundi's digital policies, strategies and regulations, divided into categories such as international development instruments, national digital policies and strategies, and laws and regulations related to the digital sector.


Publication Date: January 2024
Collaborative regulation: Accelerating Nigeria’s digital transformation  

Collaborative regulation: Accelerating Nigeria’s digital transformation

This country review is part of a series of case studies and country reviews developed in the framework of the ITU work stream on collaborative digital regulation with the financial support of the United Kingdom Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO).


Publication Date: January 2024
ICT Development Index 2023  

ICT Development Index 2023

Universal and meaningful connectivity (UMC) is the possibility for everyone to enjoy a safe, satisfying, enriching and productive online experience at an affordable cost. Based on a new methodology developed through an inclusive and iterative process, the 2023 ICT Development Index covers 169 economies and aims to assess the extent to which connectivity is universal and meaningful around the world. The process of developing the new methodology was inclusive, iterative and transparent involving Member States and the members of the Expert groups on Household ICT Indicators and on Telecommunication/ICT indicators.

Publication Date: December 2023
Regional E-Waste Monitor for the Western Balkans  

Regional E-Waste Monitor for the Western Balkans

The Western Balkan countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia, are witnessing a surge in E-waste, mirroring global trends. The joint ITU-UNEP-UNITAR Regional E-waste Monitor for the Western Balkans collects internationally comparable e-waste statistics in the region.

Publication Date: December 2023
Digital innovation profile – Serbia  

Digital innovation profile – Serbia

This digital innovation profile will serve as a valuable resource for policymakers, innovators, the private sector, and other stakeholders in Serbia. It offers critical insights into Serbia’s digital innovation landscape, identifies areas for improvement, and presents strategic recommendations for collective decision-making processes.

Publication Date: December 2023
Digital innovation profile – Georgia  

Digital innovation profile – Georgia

This digital innovation profile will serve as a valuable resource for policymakers, innovators, the private sector, and other stakeholders in Georgia. It offers critical insights into Georgia’s digital innovation landscape, identifies areas for improvement, and presents strategic recommendations for collective decision-making processes towards accelerating the country’s AI-driven competitive advantage.

Publication Date: December 2023
Measuring digital development: Facts and Figures 2023  

Measuring digital development: Facts and Figures 2023

Steady but uneven progress in global Internet connectivity highlights the disparities of the digital divide and is leaving people in low-income countries behind, according to the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) Facts and Figures 2023. ITU’s flagship Facts and Figures tracks global connectivity with estimates on key indicators, including those related to infrastructure, affordability, gender, and location. It now includes new indicators on global 5G network coverage and Internet traffic data.

Publication Date: November 2023
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Digital transformation and early warning systems for saving lives – Background paper  

Digital transformation and early warning systems for saving lives – Background paper

The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of early warning dissemination and communication, one of the four pillars of multi-hazard early warning systems (MHEWS), which ITU is leading with the newly defined executive action plan for the Early Warnings for All initiative.

Publication Date: October 2023

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Towards the harmonization of data collection – A baseline study for e-waste in East Africa  

Towards the harmonization of data collection – A baseline study for e-waste in East Africa

This collaborative study between the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research Sustainable Cycles Programme (UNITAR-SCYCLE) aims to improve the quality, collection, and interpretation of e-waste data in East Africa.

Publication Date: October 2023

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Greening Digital Companies 2023  

Green digital companies 2023 – Monitoring emissions and climate commitments

This edition of the Greening Digital Companies report by the International Telecommunication Union and the World Benchmarking Alliance focuses on the industry enabling this transformation and sheds light on the complex interplay between the digital industry and environmental challenges.

Publication Date: October 2023

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World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database online 2023  

World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database online 2023

The World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database July 2023 edition contains time series data for the years 1960, 1965, 1970 and annually from 1975 to 2022 (with preliminary 2022 data for several major indicator sets) for over 180 economies and over 180 telecommunication/ICT statistics.

Publication Date: July 2023

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Connecting every school in Indonesia to the Internet: Policy landscape assessment  

Connecting every school in Indonesia to the Internet: Policy landscape assessment

This report considers the high-level policies relating to school connectivity initiatives in Indonesia. The assessment explores the gaps in ICT sector supply and education sector demand, it examines approaches to consolidate funding opportunities to secure Internet access in schools in areas overlooked by current policies and it recommends policy interventions to address these gaps.

Publication Date: July 2023

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Connecting every school in Indonesia: A bespoke implementation framework  

Connecting every school in Indonesia: A bespoke implementation framework

This framework sets out the requirements for school connectivity, such as the policy and regulatory environment, infrastructure, sustainable financing, data and mapping, as well as the multiplier components that help optimize the utilization of school connectivity, such as digital literacy and digital skills.

Publication Date: July 2023

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Circular and sustainable public procurement - ICT equipment guide  

Circular and sustainable public procurement - ICT equipment guide

This National Digital Innovation Profile prepared by ITU provides a comprehensive look at the current state of the digital landscape and technology adoption in North Macedonia, exploring the latest trends, key players and innovative solutions shaping our country’s future.

Publication Date: July 2023

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Digital innovation profile: North Macedonia – Digital innovation ecosystem: Strategies and recommendations for accelerating digital transformation  

Digital innovation profile: North Macedonia – Digital innovation ecosystem: Strategies and recommendations for accelerating digital transformation

This National Digital Innovation Profile prepared by ITU provides a comprehensive look at the current state of the digital landscape and technology adoption in North Macedonia, exploring the latest trends, key players and innovative solutions shaping our country’s future.

Publication Date: July 2023

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Towards building inclusive digital communities”: ITU toolkit and self-assessment for ICT accessibility implementation  

Towards building inclusive digital communities”: ITU toolkit and self-assessment for ICT accessibility implementation

The 2023 edition of the ITU toolkit “Towards Building Inclusive Digital Communities”, incorporates content enhancements and website updates which aim to consistently empower ITU members and stakeholders with the most recent information, thus supporting their’ efforts in the execution of ICT/digital accessibility at national and regional levels to ensure that no one is left behind in the digital age.

Publication Date: June 2023

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GSR-23 Best Practice Guidelines  

GSR-23 Best Practice Guidelines

Regulatory and economic incentives for an inclusive sustainable digital future

The future of sustainable and inclusive digital transformation will depend on the right regulatory and economic incentives, encouraging innovation, creating a level playing field for all stakeholders, will foster social welfare and economic growth contributing to a better digital future for all.

Publication Date: June 2023
Broadband connectivity for schools in Kenya funded by the Universal Service Fund – Assessment report  

Broadband connectivity for schools in Kenya funded by the Universal Service Fund – Assessment report

This assessment compiles the lessons learnt and benefits that have been realised through connecting the schools, revealing the strategic importance of broadband connectivity as a critical enabler for teaching and learning.

Publication Date: June 2023

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Challenges and opportunities for sustainable and effective connectivity policies in Brazilian schools  

Challenges and opportunities for sustainable and effective connectivity policies in Brazilian schools

Recent reforms led by government agencies and ministries have provided positive results in enabling the national digital economy, and in 2021, Colombia joined the group of 60 countries to reach an advanced level of preparedness for digital transformation according to the ITU G5 Benchmark.

Publication Date: June 2023

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Colombia country review: Regulation at the forefront of digital transformation  

Colombia country review: Regulation at the forefront of digital transformation

Recent reforms led by government agencies and ministries have provided positive results in enabling the national digital economy, and in 2021, Colombia joined the group of 60 countries to reach an advanced level of preparedness for digital transformation according to the ITU G5 Benchmark.

Publication Date: June 2023

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Collaborative regulation for digital transformation in Kenya: A country review  

Collaborative regulation for digital transformation in Kenya: A country review

Over the last few years, Kenya has developed a comprehensive set of digital policies and strategies to move the country’s digital economy forward. The Communications Authority has prioritized regulatory reforms of benefit to the broader digital economy, rather than the ICT sector alone.

Publication Date: June 2023

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Brazil country review: regulation in the digital transformation  

Brazil country review: regulation in the digital transformation

A series of recent initiatives have sustained progress in Brazil's digital transformation, leveraging G5 collaborative digital regulation to achieve ambitious policy goals. The Federal Government of Brazil has embarked on a path towards the complete digitalization of its services, a wide-ranging process triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Publication Date: June 2023

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Egypt's digital transformation and collaborative regulation  

Egypt's digital transformation and collaborative regulation

Egypt has prioritized digital transformation in recent years, in line with an economy-wide sustainable development strategy. The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) and the National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (​NTRA) play key roles in enabling the ongoing digital transformation of the economy, including engaging in collaborative regulation activities and other joint projects with other ministries and regulatory authorities in Egypt.

Publication Date: June 2023

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Collaborative Digital Regulation Country Reviews  

Collaborative Digital Regulation Country Reviews

ITU has developed a series of national country reviews on collaborative digital regulation, in partnership with government authorities, national stakeholders and recognized experts. Based on ITU's established evidence-based tools, the ICT Regulatory Tracker and the G5 Benchmark, the country reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory and governance frameworks, policies, and practices in each studied country.

Publication Date: June 2023

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ICT infrastructure business planning toolkit – 5G networks  

ICT infrastructure business planning toolkit – 5G networks

This revised edition adds the design of networks to support sustainable 5G technology roll-out. 5G networks have the potential to expand high-speed connectivity but adoption remains a challenge in many developing countries. The toolkit addresses mechanisms to evaluate the sustainability of 5G projects.

Publication Date: May 2023

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Gender equality in digital policy in Ethiopia  

Gender equality in digital policy in Ethiopia

This country report provides an overview of the extent to which gender is addressed in Ethiopia’s digital policies, strategies, and regulations, divided into categories such as international development instruments, national digital policies and strategies, and digital sector-related laws and regulations. The report includes a non-exhaustive list of specific programmes supporting digital inclusion in Ethiopia.

Publication Date: May 2023

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 Policy brief - The affordability of ICT services 2022  

Policy brief - The affordability of ICT services 2022

The Policy brief - The affordability of ICT services 2022 finds that in 2022, ICT services became more affordable globally, resuming a downward trend interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic – mobile baskets in particular have become more affordable than ever before. As a result, the Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development's affordability target was met by 103 economies in 2022, up from 96 in 2021.

Publication Date: April 2023

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Digital innovation profile Oman  

Digital innovation profile Oman

This Digital Innovation Profile, conducted in partnership with the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Information Technology (MTCIT) of the Sultanate of Oman, aims to accurately assess the country’s digital ecosystem capacity and maturity to help Oman and its stakeholders navigate the digital innovation landscape. The aim is to help Oman to continue building new capabilities for a competitive, sustainable, and ICT-enabled economy that accelerates the development of the digital economy toward achieving Oman’s vision.

Publication Date: April 2023

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Global Digital Regulatory Outlook 2023 – Policy and regulation to spur digital transformation  

Global Digital Regulatory Outlook 2023 – Policy and regulation to spur digital transformation

The Global Digital Regulatory Outlook 2023 benchmarks regulatory progress across 193 countries worldwide, building on the successful track record of the first three editions. This new analysis is the go-to reference for regulators and policy-makers seeking to understand a fast-moving landscape – and shape regulatory change that will benefit all in the quest for digital transformation.

Publication Date: March 2023

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From electricity grid to broadband Internet: Sustainable and innovative power solutions for rural connectivity  

From electricity grid to broadband Internet: Sustainable and innovative power solutions for rural connectivity

Access to electricity is key to closing the digital divide in rural areas and developing an information society for all. The availability of reliable and affordable electricity remains a major impediment, especially in the world’s least developed countries (LDCs), landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS), and particularly in rural and remote areas.

Publication Date: March 2023

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Handbook on mainstreaming gender in digital policies  

Handbook on mainstreaming gender in digital policies

The handbook provides 1) guidance on how to take concrete actions and 2) insights to help policymakers understand how to best influence policy making processes and advocate for gender equality. Moreover, the handbook offers an initial actionable checklist for policymakers on how to set up policy actions that are gender equal.

Publication Date: March 2023

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Measuring digital development: Facts and Figures 2023  

Facts and Figures: Focus on Least Developed Countries

Over the past decade, the connectivity challenge has become more complex and demanding. Bringing everyone online is no longer enough. Meaningful connectivity – the possibility to enjoy a safe, satisfying, enriching, productive and affordable online experience – is the new imperative. For LDCs, this remains a major challenge. The digital divide between LDCs and the rest of the world shows little sign of narrowing. The risk is all too evident.

Publication Date: March 2023

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