By gender we mean the socially constructed
and culturally determined characteristics associated with women and men, the
assumptions made about the skills and abilities of women and men based on these
characteristics, the conditions in which women and men live and work, the
relations that exist between women and men, and how these are represented,
communicated, transmitted and maintained. We include sexual and social relations
based on sexuality, and relations of power and control based on gender.
The distinction between sex and gender is now
commonly made. Sex refers to physiological denotation - biology, hormones,
chromosomes, etc. Gender connotes the social and historical constructions of
masculine and feminine roles, behaviours, attributes, ideologies, etc. which
refer to some notion of biological sex.
(Gender, Culture and Organisational Change: Putting Theory into
Practice: Intro; eds. Itzin & Newman: 1995, Routledge: London)
(Iman & Mama 1997: 2)
Gender is seen as the process by which individuals
who are born into biological categories of male or female become the social
categories of men and women through the acquisition of locally-defined
attributes of masculinity and feminininty.
Gender is the social organisation of sexual