Page 669 - Shaping smarter and more sustainable cities - Striving for sustainable development goals
P. 669

Figure 4 – Direct and indirect objects of IMSSC

            2.2  Challenges of IMSSC

            In cities nowadays, information resources, like sensors, observations and models, are featured as
            different sources, great varieties, and huge numbers. However, when responding to the emergency
            events, many problems still exist, including:
            (1)     the encoding formats of the information resources are various, difficult to be integrated;

            (2)     the fusion workflow between information resources is not unified, resulting in the non‐
            uniform fusion results, inconsistent accuracy, and difficulty in fusion processing;

            (3)     the inconformity of the information resources and their fusion results service interfaces
            cause trouble in their publishing, sharing, discovering, and accessing [b‐Toppeta].

            All problems described above pose significant challenges to urban development and to IMSSC.
            To be specific, the challenges faced by IMSSC can be illustrated from three perspectives:
            1)      Information resources come from various sources and heterogeneous systems. It is difficult
                    to interconnect such systems for data sharing. Consequently, this leads to difficulties in
                    multi‐level  collaborative  decision‐making.  Taking  sensors  as  examples,  there  are  space
                    borne platforms (hundreds of orbiting satellites), airborne platforms (thousands of UAVs,
                    airships and balloons, etc.) and ground platforms (millions of ground sensors). However,
                    there  is  no  unified  meta‐model  to  represent  and  manage  the  huge  amounts  of

            ITU‐T's Technical Reports and Specifications                                                  659
   664   665   666   667   668   669   670   671   672   673   674