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                                        IDENTIFICATION PRESENTATION

                               Huahong Tu, Adam Doup´ e, Ziming Zhao, and Gail-Joon Ahn
                                                Arizona State University
                                          {tu, doupe, zzhao30, gahn}

                             ABSTRACT                        Despite various efforts to reduce telephone spam, scam and
          The rising prevalence of phone fraud is hurting consumers  robocalls, complaints on illegal calls has been making record
          and businesses. With about a half million reports each year  numbers in recent years. According to a recent US govern-
          in the United States, phone fraud complaints have more than  ment report, the number of phone fraud complaints in the
          doubled since 2013. In the current calling line identifica-  US more than doubled in just a matter of two years from
          tion presentation scheme, the caller ID is trivially spoofed.  2013 to 2015 [1]. The rise of phone scam is troubling, as bil-
          Scammers are using spoofed caller IDs to trick their victims  lions are lost to phone scams each year [7]. In the US, more
          into answering unwanted calls and further a variety of scams.  than 75% of the reported fraud and identity theft attempts are
          To provide a solution to this problem, this paper proposes  made over the phone [1]. Today, the US government receives
          an authentication scheme that provides the possibility of a  about 200,000 robocall complaints every month, and the total
          security indicator for the current Q.731.3 calling line iden-  number of reported complaints on illegal calls totaled more
          tification presentation supplementary service. The goal of  than 3.5 million in 2015 [8].
          this proposal is to help prevent users from falling victim to  Clearly, all these countermeasures have so far failed at re-
          phone impersonation scams, as well as provide a foundation  ducing the growth of telephone spam. According to a recent
          for future defenses to stop unwanted calls based on the caller  research [9], illegal callers today have access to various tech-
          ID information. This work will help to guide the future de-  nologies aimed at circumventing call blockers and prevent-
          velopment of a standardized scheme in authenticating SS7  ing identification. Among them, a practice known as caller
          identities.                                        ID spoofing is particularly effective at defeating call block-
                                                             ers, avoiding identification, and further a variety of scams.
          Keywords— Caller ID, calling line identification, spoofing,
          fraud, scam, authentication, verification, standardization  To show an example of how caller ID spoofing is used in
                                                             phone scams, one type of phone fraud that occurs frequently
                                                             is the credit card verification scam, where the spammer
                         1. INTRODUCTION
                                                             spoofs the caller ID of a bank, and uses audio recorded di-
                                                             rectly from the credit card issuer to scam his recipients. The
          With the introduction of IP access to the Public Switched
                                                             audio recording tells the recipients that their credit cards
          Telephone Network (PSTN), today the PSTN is rife with
                                                             have been suspected of fraud, and is in need of verifying
          telephone spam, namely voice, voicemail, and SMS spam.
                                                             their personal information to reactivate their account. Of
          Voice phishing, vishing, or phone fraud is a significant and
                                                             course, the true motive of this scam is to steal the recipients’
          rapidly growing problem in many countries, including the
                                                             credit card and personal information.
          US [1] and UK [2].
          To deal with this issue, governments, including the US [3]  Furthermore, caller ID spoofing can also frame true owners
          and UK [4], have enacted laws to restrict most forms of  of spoofed caller IDs with illegal behavior. When a mali-
          unwanted telephone calls. Furthermore, some governments  cious caller spoofs a known number to commit crimes, such
          have established regulatory agencies and telephone num-  as making scam calls or illegal purchase orders, or deceiving
          ber registries that allow consumers to explicitly opt out of  police into raiding a compound [10], true owners of spoofed
          unwanted calls [5,6].                              caller IDs often end up questioned by law enforcement, and
                                                             receive unfriendly calls for wrongdoings that have nothing to
          In addition to government efforts, there are also consumer
                                                             do with them.
          and business products that are made to defend against un-
          wanted calls. In the consumer market, there are physical call-  The telephone number in North America and many other re-
          blocking devices for landline telephones, and various smart-  gions follows a numbering format that identifies the region
          phone apps, that can block unwanted calls from offending  code, central office code, and subscriber number [11]. If the
          caller IDs. Among business and network operators, there is a  telephone number is spoofed, law enforcement would lose
          also supplementary network feature known as MCID (Mali-  key information that could identify and locate the offender.
          cious Call Identification) that allows the destination operator  As most telephone spam defenses today (including law en-
          to request identification of the offending calling party.  forcement) rely on user feedbacks, caller ID spoofing has

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