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Home : ITU-T Home : Cooperation between ITU-T and Universities : Kaleidoscope Events
 Beyond the Internet? − Innovations for future networks and services
  ITU-T Kaleidoscope event, Pune, India, 13-15 Dec 2010
Keynote speech: Modern academia: teaching, research, development, patents and standards, Uday B. Desai (Director, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India)

Academia has traditionally focused on teaching, research and development. These three aspects form the core of academic paradigm in most institutions. Moreover, they are in themselves quite demanding. In India, most academic institutions are working towards establishing themselves as leading research institutions – in fact, they are endeavouring to create an innovations culture. With the growing awareness on how important it is to create IPR, there is a new dimension that is added to academic pursuit, namely, patents and standards. Standards are very vital to today’s technological development and are, perhaps, even more vital to take technology to the market. Moreover, standards are a source of revenue not only to institutions but to the nation.

Thus, today there is a need to rework the academic structure. It is not necessary that every faculty does all four; nevertheless, it is imperative that there are enough faculty that give emphasis on standards. In fact, once the realization sets in, that taking research to market is closely entwined with standards – there will be an automatic emphasis on standards.

It is also important to recognize that for research to get incorporated into standards there has to be active collaborations with industries. This collaboration is where Indian academia is weak.

In this talk, first a brief perspective on how standards activity can be incorporated into academia without compromising on the existing academic paradigms will be given. Then, some research activity in India, in the area of ICT that could have impact on standards will be mentioned. Also, there will be a brief description on some of the ongoing efforts on standards development, by academicians, in India. The talk will conclude on what are the possible avenues for academia to move forward and make major contributions to international standards.
Keynote speech: Vehicle communication: a future telecommunication market, Tadao Saito (Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo, Japan)

Because of the rapid development of electronics, the market of information and communication technology changes rapidly. The cost reduction of advanced electronics made communication equipments inexpensive, and nowadays almost all people in the world have cell phone. This means that the market of telecommunication for human users is near to saturation. Although telecommunication technology changed rapidly and the performance of communication has improved, it is difficult to have higher price for higher performance, so and the market expansion will be incremental.

As a promising new market, vehicle could take advantage of telecommunications to develop a variety of applications for safety, comfort and operation support. The connected vehicle technology is a new competition edge in the car industry. In order to develop these applications, the telecommunication performance parameters need to be redesigned. Vehicle telecommunication could be subdivided in two different classes: “transport telematics using telecommunication” and “intelligent transport system (ITS) using dedicated short range communication”. The boarder of this classification is dynamically changing to expand the territory of transport telematics.

The presentation covers some examples of vehicle communication and explains new ranges of performance parameters. To promote the future “network of things” market, designing properly the performance parameter sets is needed; the current telecommunication development follows a different path. Finally, a new set of requirements for Next Generation Networks can be derived from the analysis of future applications.
Keynote speech: Future of communications? The individual user experience, Detlev Otto (CTO, Nokia Siemens Networks, Germany)

The advent of smart devices combined with HSPA network capabilities changed many things in the mobile communications food-chain. We could say the network changed from service provisioning to service enabling.

On the one side users are now masters of their services and the network is used as a transparent pipe. On the other side network resource utilization left predictability. The third "mega-trend" seen is connected objects or machine to machine (M2M) devices. Forecasts see as much as ten times more connected objects/devices in 2020 compared to 2010.

Obviously the users used their chance and with the help of smart devices (phones, tablets) and already started to individualize their communications needs and behaviour – and we are only at the beginning of that era. The operators will have to respond to this and make sure their network resources are utilized in relation to the ARPU they can get. They will have to figure out how to participate in this changed "communications food-chain" and how to manage a service enabling network.

Here we can see three "next big things" for 2011 and beyond:
I. Capacity or resource management
II. Monetizing the service enabling network
III. Network transformation from network to service management
The first big thing focuses on the user experience. The users are individualizing their services and the operators need to individualize the user experience in the same way. The communication networks need to learn to differentiate between the services and which service and user should have which resource in which situation.

The second big thing is the need or wish to participate in innovative new services and revenue streams. These will be born mainly out of two areas: a) blended services combining user insight of the network operator with services from the cloud and b) enterprise services. Both require the network to do two things smarter than today: identity management and smart charging.

The third big thing is a network transformation from network management to service management. As part of this, today’s BSS "food-chain" will need to manage millions of machines and objects connected and planning and operations processes will leave stove-pipes for radio, core, transport in favour of services to be managed end to end. IP will be a key enabler assisting this transformation.
S2.1 Invited paper: Toward a polymorphic future internet: a networking science approach
Kavé Salamatian (Professor, Université de Savoie, France)

In this paper, I will develop two major claims. First the, Future Internet should be polymorphic and conciliate different architectural paradigms networking. The second claim is that the Future Internet should be build on strong theoretical basis from a Networking science that is in course of development. In this paper, I have used the concept of cooperation as an interpretation lens. Specifically, I will describe how virtualisation make possible a polymorphic future Internet and enables the easy deployment of new cooperation schemes. The next aspect that I describe in this paper is relative to security in the future Internet. Particularly the paper advocates the necessity of three major components: a secure execution platform, an authentication mechanism, and a monitoring component. Finally, I will show that it is possible to build scalable addressing and routing scheme but at the condition of following a clean slate approach.
S2.2 Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks*
Masahiko Jinno, Yoshiaki Sone, Osamu Ishida, Takuya Ohara, Akira Hirano, Masahito Tomizawa (NTT, Japan)

There is growing recognition that we are rapidly approaching the physical capacity limit of standard optical fiber. It is important to make better use of optical network resources to accommodate the ever-increasing traffic demand to support the future Internet and services. We first introduce an architecture, enabling technologies, and the benefits of recently proposed spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path networks. In these networks, the required minimum spectral resources are adaptively allocated to an optical path based on traffic demand and network conditions. We then present possible adoption scenarios from current rigid optical networks to elastic optical path networks. We also discuss some possible study items that are relevant to the future activities of ITU-T. These items include optical transport network (OTN) architecture, structure and mapping of the optical transport unit, automatically switched optical network (ASON) control plane issues, and some physical aspects with possible extension of the current frequency grid.
S2.3 Introducing multi-ID and multi-locator into network architecture*
Ved P. Kafle, Masugi Inoue (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)

The present day Internet has no separate namespace for host IDs. It uses IP addresses as host IDs, which are in fact locators. This dual role is problematic for mobility, multihoming, security, and routing on the Internet. To solve these problems, research has recently begun on ID/locator split architectures. Some standardization activities based on this concept are also progressing in ITU-T Study Group 13 and in the IETF. We expect that introduction of the ID/locator split concept into the new generation network or future Internet architecture can bring about additional functions, such as heterogeneous network protocol support, multicast, QoS, resource or service discovery, and flexible human-network interaction. Toward realization of these functions, this paper presents a study on an approach of introducing multi-ID and multi-locator support into the network architecture. The paper also lists items that have the potential to be standardized in ITU-T.
S3.1: Invited paper: Can computational thinking reduce marginalization in the future internet?
Peter Wentworth (Professor, Rhodes University, South Africa)

Maths is presently regarded as the key driver that underpins Science, Education and Technology (SET) skills. In spite of significant studies, investment and efforts, math skills and widespread enthusiasm for SET remain elusive. In South Africa's disadvantaged communities, poor quality maths teaching and poor maths performance, both legacies of past political engineering, further fuel marginalization.

Computational thinking is a new characterization of some specific procedural thinking, abstraction, problem solving and organizational skills that are finding their way from computer science programs into other fields.

The paper describes our refocus of content in BingBee, a SET skill-building kiosk project targeting disadvantaged communities. As we shift to emphasize computational thinking more explicitly, we speculate that these skills could complement, and perhaps eventually displace, some elements of maths as the dominant driver of SET.

The confluence of better tools, open service interfaces, and the rapid spread of handsets and devices into marginalized communities is an opportunity to build more widespread computational thinking skills. This could in turn facilitate a future Internet which is more inclusive, and in which users are able to create their own services.
S3.2: Invited paper: Challenges the Internet poses to the policymaker
Arun Mehta (President, Bidirectional Access Promotion Society, India)

This paper addresses policymakers at national and international levels -- regulators, standards bodies, politicians – arguing that there is no “beyond” the Internet. With the Internet so intimately intertwined with the lives of people, being used to build the backbone of large, important communities, an attempt to replace it with a new network would generate immense friction, and cost a lot. The transition would take long, because lots of complex software would need to be written, disrupting critical processes of the economy, indeed of governance. A plethora of regulators with very different manners and degrees of control would have to learn to work together at an international level, otherwise we might revert to the lawlessness of the Internet. The lost opportunity of Minitel, the botched attempt to look beyond the Internet in the 1990s via X.400 and the bankruptcy of large telecommunication companies in the wake of the dotcom boom are useful in appreciating the historical context and learning lessons from. Instead of looking beyond, the ITU should play a constructive role vis-à-vis the Internet. Suggestions presented are elimination of spam, and making the Internet accessible to all. These make commercial sense too.
S3.3: Participatory approach to the reduction of the digital gap in Amazon Region of Ecuador in the framework of the "innovation for development" program
Alessandro Galardini1, Daniele Trinchero1, Benedetta Fiorelli1; Salvatore Pappalardo2 (1Politecnico di Torino; 2University of Padova, Italy)

This work illustrates the methodological approach followed in the Province of Orellana, Eastern Ecuador, for the realization of a telecommunication network infrastructure between the capital of the Province, the city of Puerto Francisco de Orellana (also known as El Coca), and some peripheral communities located in the surrounding of the tropical moist forest. The project has been implemented in one of the poorest countries of Latin America, in a remote and disadvantaged area where the lack of communication infrastructures and the absence of almost all public services generates a strong migration towards the capital. In this context, in 2008, it was conceived a project for the development of a communication system that allows the provisioning of basic intranet services for distance learning, telemedicine and internet connectivity. The main scope of the project was the development of an approach focused on the technological transfer to the local population, to start a reduction process of the digital gap in the area. The aim of the project has been achieved thanks to the direct enrolment of local municipalities, small entrepreneurs, communities and local NGO. The technological transfer to local players and the choice of a suitable platform, designed for a simplified, low cost management, guarantee the sustainability and scalability of the project. The declaration of interest in the infrastructure by the Municipality enables the economic sustainability of the project.
S4.1 Invited paper: A vision on the information and communication technologies using cloud computing environment
Hiroshi Yasuda (Professor, Tokyo Denki University, Japan)

The government of Japan has announced the new ICT policy in June 2010. One of the points of the new policy is to start the 3D motion image content market in order to create new key industries in the near future as 3D motion image content will become most powerful media for CGM (Consumer Generated Media). In order to activate 3D motion image content industries, the development of an effective and simple tool for making 3D motion image content even by non-experienced people, is required. The Digital Movie Director (DMD) developed by the author, is being evolved as such an effective and simple tool. However, the big computational power requirement in making 3D motion image content has prevented DMD from being widely deployed. The cloud computing technology is supposed to solve this problem, thus, in this paper, the future prospects of the 3D motion image content industries with the cloud computing technology will be explained.
S4.2 Hybrid circuit/packet networks with dynamic capacity partitioning
Chaitanya S. K. Vadrevu1, Menglin Liu1, Biswanath Mukherjee1; Chin Guok2, Evangelos Chaniotakis2, Inder Monga2; Massimo Tornatore3 (1University of California, 2Energy Sciences Network, USA; 3Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

In this paper, we consider hybrid circuit/packet networks. A hybrid circuit/packet network consists of a circuit network co-existing with a packet network; generally the packet network is embedded on top of the circuit network. However, in certain cases such as the DOE energy sciences network (ESnet) [4], the circuit network and the packet network are deployed side-by-side (e.g. they have common end-node sites and equipment), but they are logically separate and they may have physically disjoint links. Currently, there is no capacity sharing between the packet and the circuit sections of the networks. In this paper, we propose and investigate the characteristics of schemes that enable efficient capacity partitioning between packet and circuit networks while ensuring survivability and robustness of the services. We conduct simulative experiments on ESnet topology with realistic traffic demands. We observe that capacity partitioning between packet and circuit networks enables to support services with enhanced quality of service and robustness along with improved resource utilization.
S4.3 A New Protocol Layer for User Space Functionality
Pankaj Chand (Independent Researcher, India)

Evolution of the Internet user has brought attention to the lack of standards for ideal levels of user interaction. The core Internet architecture has not evolved much since its inception, and its user-driven limitations typically constrain one's personal computing infrastructure so that the goals of pervasive and ubiquitous computing are only incipiently achieved. We propose to consider the user's image, or user space, as a significant entity in the Internet model by introducing a new layer of protocols into the Internet protocol stack to support future usage in the Internet. We also present the Identifier/Interlocutor/Locator split architecture for flexible addressing. Standards for such architectures would provide generic user support across heterogeneous networks.
S4.4 Quality of service in the future internet
Jorge Carapinha1; Christoph Werle2; Konstantin Miller3; Roland Bless4; Horst Roessler5, Heidrun Grob-Lipski5; Andrei Bogdan Rus6, Virgil Dobrota6 (1Portugal Telecom Inovação, Portugal; 2Universität Karlsruhe (TH), 3Berlin Institute of Technology, 4Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 5Alcatel-Lucent, Germany; 6Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania)

Whatever the Network of the Future turns out to be, there is little doubt that QoS will constitute a fundamental requirement. However, QoS issues and the respective solutions will not remain unchanged. New challenges will be raised; new ways of dealing with QoS will be enabled by novel networking concepts and techniques. Thus, a fresh approach at the QoS problem will be required. This paper addresses QoS in a Future Internet scenario and is focused on three emerging concepts: Network Virtualization, enabling the coexistence of multiple network architectures over a common infrastructure; In-Network Management, improving scalability of management operations by distributing management logic across all nodes; the Generic Path based on the semantic resource management concept, enabling the design of new data transport mechanisms and supporting different types of communications in highly mobile and dynamic network scenarios.
S5.1 Cross-language identification using wavelet transform and artificial neural network*
Shawki A. Al-Dubaee, Nesar Ahmad (Aligarh Muslim University, India)

With the advent of the Internet, search engines were developed for English language because English language was a lingua franca. Currently, most of popular search engines such as Google and Yahoo! are available in more than 50 languages. However, these search engines have received less attention in South Asian languages especially, Urdu language. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for feature extraction and classification of queries in cross-language search engines. This novel approach presents an automatic method for classification of English and Urdu languages identification. The classifier used is a three-layered feed-forward artificial neural network and the feature vector is formed by calculating the wavelet coefficients. Three wavelet decomposition functions (filters), namely Haar, Bior 2.2 and Bior 3.1 have been used to extract the feature vector set and their performance results have been compared. The performance results of the Haar filter have given superior results than other filters.
S5.2 GeoHybrid: a hierarchical approach for accurate and scalable geographic localization*
Ibrahima Niang, Bamba Gueye, Bassirou Kasse (University Cheikh Anta DIOP of Dakar, Senegal)

Geographic location and Grid computing are two areas that have taken off in recent years, both receiving a lot of attention from research community. The Grid Resource Brokers, which tries to find the best match between the job requirements and the resources available on the Grid, can take benefits by knowing the geographic location of clients, for a considerable improvement of their decision-taking functions. A measurement-based geolocation service estimates host locations from delay measurements taken from landmarks, which are hosts with a known geographic location, toward the host to be located. Nevertheless, active measurement can burden the network. Relying on database-driven geolocation and active measurements, we propose GeoHybrid. GeoHybrid estimates the geographic location of Internet hosts with low overhead as well better accuracy with respect to geolocation databases. Afterwards, we propose a geolocation middleware for grid computing. By defining the architecture and the methods of this service, we show that a promising symbiosis may be envisaged by the use of the proposed middleware service for grid computing.
S5.3 Context-aware smart environments enabling new business models and services
Christian Mannweiler1; Jose Simoes2; Boris Moltchanov3 (1University of Kaiserslautern; 2Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany; 3Telecom Italia, Italy)

This work describes innovative smart environments with embedded context-awareness technologies, enabling new business models and consequently the creation of new services. The context-awareness framework presented in this paper is taken from the results of an EU Framework Programme (FP) 7 Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) project. Major novelties include a business shift from traditional and conventional telecommunication or ICT services towards highly personalized, customized and user targeted services, empowered by a myriad of pervasive and ubiquitous interconnected environments employing various kinds of context information. In this work, we show how these context data can be technically made available as a service and business enabler and be used by any entity or application built within these environments, using context for adapting service logic or for targeted service customization. Moreover, it considers customer's needs and privacy aspects, providing users with a more immersive and less intrusive experience at the same time.
S5.4 Innovative tangible user interface as a mean for interacting telecommunications services
Klemen Peternel, Luka Zebec, Andrej Kos (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia)

While modern telecommunications are ever more useful and even necessary in everyday life, not all groups of people are equally capable of using them. Due to inevitable demographic changes the elderly are growing in numbers, yet they are not very well served by user interfaces for the various telecommunications tools. The prime target group for our proposed technology is people with cognitive and motor disabilities, whether due to age, illness or traumatic events. They require a user interface which enables them to make or redirect calls, create conferences, set forwarding and/or access different voice XML services - without the complexity of keyboards or menus with tree structures. The motivators behind are: simplicity, accessibility, usability and efficiency - all in the scope of potential user groups and usage scenarios. The key enablers are Next Generation Network (NGN) open interfaces and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology as a part of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) family.
S6.1 How many standards in a laptop? (and other empirical questions)
Brad Biddle, Andrew White, Sean Woods (Arizona State University, USA)

An empirical study which identifies 251 technical interoperability standards implemented in a modern laptop computer, and estimates that the total number of standards relevant to such a device is much higher. Of the identified standards, the authors find that 44% were developed by consortia, 36% by formal standards development organizations, and 20% by single companies. The intellectual property rights policies associated with 197 of the standards are assessed: 75% were developed under "RAND" terms, 22% under "royalty free" terms, and 3% utilize a patent pool. The authors make certain observations based on their findings, and identify promising areas for future research.
S6.2 A user-centric approach to QoS regulation in future networks*
Eva Ibarrola1, Fidel Liberal1, Armando Ferro1; Jin Xiao2 (1University of the Basque Country, Spain; 2University of Waterloo, Canada)

The evolution of current networks to Next Generation Networks (NGNs) constitutes arguably the most significant transformation in the Telecommunication sector in recent decades. Quality of Service (QoS) is one of the key aspects in this evolution. In the NGN environment, networks are designed to be multiservice, supporting a wide range of premium services. Each of these services may have different QoS requirements which should be established based on the overall end user's perception. In this emerging context, novel QoS policies are required to adapt the traditional QoS regulatory model to the new scenario. This paper presents an approach to identify key factors that contributes to the development of future Internet quality of service regulation. A case study on the application of our user-centric QoS model to the Internet QoS regulation in Spain is described. The results of the study demonstrate the need for adapting current regulatory frameworks in order to ensure competition, pluralism and diversity in the new network environment.
S6.3 Competition and cooperation in the formation of information technology interoperability standards: a process model of web services core standards*
Jai Ganesh (Infosys Technologies Ltd, India)

Standards formation is a key dimension in the competitive strategy of ICT firms, as a successful strategy would result in the emergence of favorable IT interoperability standards. This paper examines the standardization efforts of core Web services standards and the results indicate that resource dependencies and strategies adopted by dominant firms to extend their platforms influence the standards formation process. Communities of practice and standard-setting bodies are leveraged by dominant firms in the formation and adoption of standards. We propose a process model of standard setting consisting of five intertwined states: resource pooling, linkages, signaling and implementation, institutionalization, and extension.
S7.1 Performance comparison of intelligent jamming in Rf (physical) LAYER with WLAN Ethernet router and WLAN Ethernet bridge
Rakesh Jha, Upena D. Dalal (Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, India)

The very nature of Radio Frequency (RF) technology makes Wireless LANs (WLANs) open to a variety of unique attacks. Most of these RF-related attacks begin as exploits of Layer 1 (Physical - PHY) & Layer 2 (Media Access Control - MAC) of the 802.11 specification, and then build into a wide array of more advanced assaults, including Denial of Service (DOS) attacks. In Intelligent Jamming the jammer jammed physical layer of WLAN by generating continuous high power noise in the vicinity of wireless receiver nodes. In this paper, we study the threats in an Intelligent jamming Comparison with WLAN Ethernet Router and WLAN Ethernet Bridge and the security goals to be achieved. We present and examine analytical simulation results for the throughput for different scenario performance, using the well-known network simulator OPNET 10.0 and OPNET Modeler 14.5 for WiMAX Performance. IEEE 802.11b has two different DCF modes: basic CSMA/CA and RTS/CTS. Intelligent jamming, which jams with the knowledge of the protocol, the jamming describe in our paper is based on the basis of Fake AP Jamming. When we have applied same concept in WiMAX system under the influence of jamming we have received same effect of router performance.
S7.2 Self-organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm for local area LTE-Advanced
Sanjay Kumar1; Yuanye Wang2, Nicola Marchetti2 (1Birla Institute of Technology, India; 2Aalborg University, Denmark)

This paper presents a self organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm in order to minimize the mutual intercell interference among Home Node Bs (HeNBs), aiming to improve the system throughput performance compared to the existing frequency reuse one scheme. The proposed algorithm is useful in Local Area (LA) deployment of the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) systems, where the HeNBs are expected to be deployed randomly and without coordination in distributed manner. The result shows that the proposed algorithm effectively improves the system throughput performance with very limited signaling exchange among the HeNBs.
S7.3 On the design of ultra wide band antenna based on fractal geometry
Pranoti Bansode1; Raj Kumar2 (1Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, 2University of Pune, India)

This paper presents ultra wide band circular fractal antenna. The antenna has been fed with coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed. This fractal antenna has been designed and fabricated on FR4 substrate εr = 4.3 and thickness h = 1.53 mm with initial diameter of solid circular disc 15 mm. The experimental result of circular fractal antenna exhibits the ultra wide band (UWB) characteristic from 3.295 GHz to 13.365 GHz corresponds 120.88 % impedance bandwidth. The first resonant frequency of fractal antenna shifted to 3.75 GHz in comparison to first resonant frequency 4.31 GHz of conventional simple circular disc monopole antenna. This indicates the size reduction of antenna. The measured radiation pattern of this fractal antenna is nearly omni-directional in azimuth plane throughout the band. This type of antenna can be useful for UWB system and sensing applications.
S7.4 Design of inscribed square circular fractal antenna with adjustable notch-band characteristics
Raj Kumar1; Kailas Sawant2, Jatin Pai2 (1University of Pune, 2Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, India)

This paper presents the design of an inscribed square circular fractal antenna with notch having adjustable frequency characteristics. The position and width of the notch band can be adjusted in the entire operating band. A prototype of the antenna has been designed on FR4 substrate with εr = 4.3 and thickness h = 1.53 mm with a U-shape slot in coplanar waveguide feed of length L = 11 mm and slot width W = 0.4 mm. The experimental result of this antenna exhibits ultra-wide band characteristics from frequency 3.1 GHz to 15.0 GHz. The notch in operating band helps to reduce the interference with the frequency bands of Worldwide Interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX). The simulated and experimental return loss are found in good agreement. The experimental radiation of this antenna in azimuth plane is nearly omni-directional. This proposed inscribed square circular fractal antenna with notch can thus be used for Ultra wide band (UWB) system, microwave imaging and precision position system.
S7.5 Resonant frequencies of a circularly polarized nearly circular annular ring microstrip antenna with superstrate loading and airgaps
Jayashree Shinde1; Pratap Shinde2, BrajKishor Mishra2; Raj Kumar3; Mahadeo Uplane4 (1Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, 2NMIMS University, 3DAIT University, 4Shivaji University, India)

This paper presents an analysis for the resonant frequencies and its various harmonics of a nearly Circular Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna (ARMSA) with and without air gaps and superstrate loadings. This ARMSA is studied for various radii of the inner and outer radiating circular edges of disc. Three such nearly circular ARMSA are analyzed with an Aspect Ratio of 0.98. By diagonal feeding at the center of ARMSA, circular polarizations are observed with generation of fundamental resonant frequency and higher order modes. Multilayer dielectric ARMSA with and without air gaps are analyzed using effective quasi-static capacitance approach and compared with experimental results using Vector Network Analyzer to provide less than 1% deviation in the resonant frequency. Also the full wave simulated and experimental readings go in good agreement for all the three nearly circular ARMSA for with and without air gaps along with superstrate loadings of various height and dielectric constant material as cover. This closed form model of nearly circular ARMSA is suitable for covered antenna devices CAD and is directly applicable for integration of microstrip antennas beneath protective dielectric superstrates in portable wireless equipments.
S8.1 A scheme for disaster recovery in wireless networks with dynamic ad-hoc routing
Guowei Chen, Aixian Hu, Takuro Sato (Waseda University, Japan)

This paper proposes a hybrid network scheme combining ad-hoc networks into cellular networks. The scheme is aimed to help the networks to recover to service as much as possible after a disaster strike, by maintaining the connection between Base Stations (BSs) and nodes via multi-hopping, where if a node cannot connect to a BS directly, it switches its working mode from cellular mode to ad-hoc mode. A location-based routing protocol has been proposed for building a route from the node to the BS. Simulation results shows that even only a small part of the nodes can directly connect to a BS, most of the nodes can find a route to a BS via multi-hopping. And it is found that it outperforms a previously proposed solution which is via beaconing in terms of resistance to mobility.
S8.2 A new study on network performance under link failure in OPS/OBS high-capacity optical networks
Felipe Rudge Barbosa, Indayara Martins, Edson Moschim (State University of Campinas - Unicamp, Brazil)

In this work we analyze the performance and sensitivity to link failure of metropolitan networks based on the technology of optical packet/burst switching (OPS/OBS). We use ring and mesh topologies to evaluate through analytical modeling and computer simulations the impact of link failure on each topology. We adopt the parameters average number of hops and packet loss fraction to evaluate network performance. It is observed that mesh topologies with triple connection node configuration (3x3) are more robust; consequently in case of link failure the impact of lost data is minimum compared with the other topologies and configurations considered.
S8.3 Business scheme for shifting from existing networks to trusted green networks
Yoshitoshi Murata (Iwate Prefectural University, Japan)

The future networks have yet to be defined. These are not represented by the next generation of the Internet and they need to satisfy requirements for the sustainability of mankind. These are called Trusted Green Networks (TGNs) in this paper. Although TGNs offer marvellous concepts and excellent functions, they will not always be widely deployed. There have been several initiatives to develop future networks. Their purpose is developing innovative technologies, but not including deployment schemes. We selected "sustainability", "trust and security", and "solving the digital divide by location" as concepts underlying TGNs and clarified their requirements. A business scheme is also proposed that boosts the shift from existing networks to TGNs. And the network layer model of TGNs is introduced.
S8.4 Innovative ad-hoc wireless sensor networks to significantly reduce leakages in underground water infrastructures
Daniele Trinchero1, Riccardo Stefanelli1, Luca Cisoni1; Abdullah Kadri2, Adnan Abu-Dayya2, Mazen Omar Hasna2, Tamer Khattab2 (1Politecnico di Torino, Italy; 2Qatar University, Qatar)

This paper presents an ICT solution to overcome the problem of water dispersion in water distribution networks. Leakage prevention and breaks identification in water distribution networks are fundamental for an adequate use of natural resources. Nowadays, all over the world, water wasting along the distribution path reaches untenable percentages (up to 80 % in some regions). Since the pipes are buried within the terrain, typically only relevant breaks are considered for restorations: excavations are very expensive and consequently the costs to identify the position of the leakage or just the position of the pipe itself are too high. To address this problem, and simplify the leakage identification process, the authors have designed a wireless network system making use of mobile wireless sensors able to detect breaks and reveal unknown tracks and monitor the pressure spectrum of the fluid flowing in the pipe. The sensors transmit the acquired data from the terrain to the surface by use of a wireless connection. On the surface ground there are stations that receive the signal, process it, and communicate with a central unit where necessary intelligent signal processing techniques are used to detect leakage sources. Compared to other leakage detection solutions already available in the market (such as: Ground penetrating radar (GPR), pure acoustic techniques and tracer gases), the proposed technique appears very efficient and much more inexpensive.
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