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Home : ITU-T Home : Cooperation between ITU-T and Universities : Kaleidoscope Events
Innovations for Digital Inclusion
ITU-T Kaleidoscope event, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 31 Aug - 1 Sep 2009


Keynote speech In 1969, 40 years ago, two persons predicted the next society after “Industrial Society”. Alain Touraine in France predicted “Post-Industrial Society”, and Yujiro Hayashi in Japan described the advent of “Information Society” after Industrial Society. In that year, two events occurred by chance suggesting the advent of information society, one of which was the first packet transmission experiment over ARPANET between UCLA and SRI. This is the origin of the Internet. The other event was TV broadcast from the moon on which the first mankind landed flying in the Apollo No.11 Spaceship. Today we are celebrating the 40 years anniversary of Information Society as shown in Fig.1. During these 40 years, ICT advanced quite rapidly, and especially in these ten years, the advancement of the Internet and cellular phone networks has been remarkable, and the economy and daily life in the today’s society are dependent heavily on such ICT infrastructure. In 2010s we are going to make progress toward “High Level of Information Society” which will appear in 2020s - 2030s. A new paradigm of both computer systems and communication networks will be envisaged as shown in Fig. 2.

In this presentation, requirements for the new ICT paradigm are shown, and technological issues to realize it are discussed.

[1] Tomonori Aoyama, “ A New Generation Network: Beyond the Internet and NGN,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol.47, No. 5, pp.82-87, May 2009

Figure 1 - Advancement of Information Society Figure 2 - New ICT Paradigm in 2020s/2030s
Keynote presentation  A vision of communications for the next billion
Sigurd Schuster (Nokia Siemens Networks, Germany)
Carlos Uzal (Telefónica Latin America, Argentina)

By the end of 2008, nearly four billion peopled used telephone and/or Internet services on fixed and mobile networks. We may anticipate that this number will grow to around five billion until 2015, with this growth coming from emerging economies. Although there are some growth expectations in fixed lines, the majority of new connections is expected to be on the mobile side.

Looking at these market projections, the industry has to develop ways to bring connectivity to the new users in a highly cost effective way. At the same time we need to have a closer look at the services: while in many cases, providing voice telephony to first-time telecommunications users is already a big step ahead, “Digital Inclusion” needs to ensure access to the Internet or at least Internet-like data services as well. To implement Digital Inclusion does only not mean to provide a personal computer or a mobile phone with Internet connection - this could be the first challenge and the easiest one. Digital inclusion is much more than that: we are talking about reaching specific groups of users, communities, schools, and little remote villages, and teach them how digital communications, services and technology can bring benefits to their life. In some places these challenges seem still to be far from reality, but we already have seen some successful examples of innovative, Internet driven business models providing free services in emerging markets. Here is a big opportunity for the telecommunications industry. We have the ability to deploy network access, we can team up with partners to provide terminals, content and knowledge to include the “next billion” into the digital life.

On the connectivity side of communication networks, state-of-the-art radio technologies provide the base to cover large areas fast and at affordable cost. Smart site solutions for base stations enable sustained operation in remote locations, in many cases even without connection to the power grid. Tight integration with fixed infrastructure will help to bring backhaul cost down in populated areas. IP based infrastructure and photonics will help to make transport, core networks, and basic services available at sufficiently low cost.

On the services and applications layer, the extended use of IT technology and a wealth of dedicated SW applications will help network service providers to serve low ARPU customers, offer cheap voice and suitable data services, and allow for widespread usage of prepaid and innovative payment schemes. It also allows developing innovative business models with new players in the value chain and to even serve users in locations where a traditional telecommunications service economically would not be feasible, or to bring “pre-Internet” services to areas where broadband connectivity is not affordable.

If our industry aims at turning such a vision into reality, this does not come for free. Besides constructive, cooperative work of all parties in standardization, regulation, equipment development, network and service evolution and operation, we need to “go the extra mile”: Full exploitation of our creativity, innovation, and research capabilities are needed - without a close partnership between the academic world and the industry we will fail to meet the goal.
S1.1  Is digital inclusion a good thing? How can we make sure it is?
Richard Stallman (Free Software Foundation, USA)

Activities directed at “including” more people in the use of digital technology are predicated on the assumption that such inclusion is invariably a good thing. It appears so, when judged solely by immediate practical convenience. However, if we also judge in terms of human rights, whether digital inclusion is good or bad depends on what kind of digital world we are to be included in. If we wish to work towards digital inclusion as a goal, it behooves us to make sure it is the good kind.
S1.2  Technology for losers: re-equipping the excluded
Erkki Sutinen (University of Joensuu, Finland)

The agenda of technology for losers is closely related to a politically more correct concept of using technology to empower disadvantaged regions or individuals. Technology for losers emphasizes the fact that losers are those that had something valuable which they have subsequently, for whatever reason, lost. Although commonly used as a highly patronizing and even offensive term, the term loser, literally, refers to diverse users of technology such as people marginalized because of unemployment, individuals with special needs, and poor people in developing regions. Hence, together they form a majority of the humankind. Working with losers requires technology designers to focus more on the urgent and urging, concrete problems, while the traditional perspective of disadvantaged users calls for correct strategies at the policy level. The key characteristic of designing technology for losers is the fact that it starts from the identification of their strengths rather than needs or lacks; thus recognizing their ultimate resources which can be released by re-equipping them with what they have lost.
S1.3  Interplay and implications of intellectual property and academic-industry collaboration to foster digital inclusion
Louis Masi, Dawn Tew (IBM Corporation)

This paper discusses how to reduce the barriers universities and industry face when working together on collaborative research projects. As a best practices study, the paper describes lessons that should not be viewed as isolated experiments, but as practices that can create the synergy required to drive collaborative research, innovation, and digital inclusion. This is particularly critical for developing and growth market countries, but appropriate for all.
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LECTURE PAPERS: Session 2 - Leveraging network-enabled services for digital inclusion
S2.1  Towards Digital Blood-Banking
Vasileios Spyropoulos, Maria Botsivaly, Aris Tzavaras (Technological Education Institute of Athens, GR); Panagiotoula Spyropoulou (General Hospital of Piraeus “Tzaneion”, GR)

This paper constitutes a status report of the attempts of our group during the last decade, to contribute to the design and the implementation of a universal Information System with integrated Web-Services, covering the most important Aspects of modern Transfusion Medicine, i.e. Medical-Managerial and Educational issues, Clinical and Laboratory Quality Assurance, Hemovigilance, Financial-Managerial topics, and finally, post Transfusion Continuity of Care.
S2.3  Quality of Service management for ISP: A model and implementation methodology based on ITU-T Rec.802 framework
Eva Ibarrola (University of the Basque Country, ES); Jin Xiao (University of Waterloo, CA); Fidel Liberal, Armando Ferro (University of the Basque Country, ES)

Quality of Service (QoS) has become one of the most important factors among Internet Service Providers (ISPs). The implementation of appropriate QoS policies is essential in order to maintain customer loyalty and fulfill regulators’ requirements. ITU-T Recommendation E.802 provides a framework for the identification of QoS criteria relevant to the users and the ISPs. This recommendation also provides guidelines to derive measurable QoS parameters from identified criteria. This paper presents a QoS management model and implementation methodology for ISPs. We ground our investigation on Rec. E.802 framework which the ISPs may face when implementing ITU-T Rec. G.1000. The proposed methodology is meaningful for the users, the vendors, and the network operators. And its conformance to ITU-T standard makes it suitable and deploy-ready for both regulators and providers
S2.3  Enhanced Advertising for Next Generation Networks
Jose Simões () ; Thomas Magedanz (Fraunhofer FOKUS, DE); Luca Lamorte, Moltchanov Boris, Carmen Criminisi (Telecom Italia, IT)

Telecommunication and Internet services are constantly subject to changes, seeking the customer’s full satisfaction. Enriching these services with innovative approaches such as context-aware, mobile, adaptable and interactive mechanisms, enables users to experience a variety of personalized services seamlessly across different platforms and technologies. In this sense, advertising is not exception, especially if we consider that it will become the enabler for future next generation services. This paper, therefore presents an architectural approach to address advertising solutions across different technologies and platforms, enriching the overall user Quality of Experience. Moreover, by over viewing the current advertising market scenario it provides the vision to overcome the established advertising paradigms focusing on key points like user privacy protection and social networks integration.
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LECTURE PAPERS: Session 3 - Bridging the Digital Divide for the individual
S3.1  A model and system architecture for ubiquitous sensor network businesses
Masugi Inoue (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, JP)

We address issues concerning technology development, environment creation, and service model for the businesses using ubiquitous sensor networks (USN). Large-scale, long-term experiments with a comprehensive system that can provide test applications to the public under government initiated research projects will help us make USN businesses and services available. Sensor cells with the proposed managed wireless mesh network will be able to create new USN domains logically separated from but cooperative with web domains on the current Internet, providing novel, context-aware, interactive services to users with the use of information from sensors deployed across heterogeneous networks. We also present USN business platform composed of communications, information management, and application platforms as a big picture of our idea about system architecture. A milestone on the road toward realizing USN businesses is also introduced.
S3.2  Discrimination in NGN service markets: Opportunity or barrier to digital inclusion?
Fernando Beltran (University of Auckland, NZ); Lina Gomez (Centro de Investigacion de las Telecomunicaciones, CO)

The promise of digital inclusion may be deterred by different sorts of discrimination brought about by Next-Generation Network (NGN) operators. As the growth of fixed and mobile networks relies on private investment and sufficient regulatory and economic incentives, competition in different telecommunications markets will increasingly depend on providers’ ability to differentiate their product and discriminate among consumers. Unless the industry – operators, content providers, regulatory and competition authorities – fully understands and exploits the welfare enhancing role of discrimination in the new environment, NGN’s promises of universal and ubiquitous access, sustainability and affordability might be only incipiently achieved.
S3.3  Global effort on Bridging the Digital Divide and the role of ICT standardization
Mario Canazza (National Telecommunications Agency, BR)

In the year 2000, at the dawn of the 21st century, World Leaders from 189 States gathered at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit to discuss the Millennium Development Goals. In order to achieve the goal of eradicating poverty by the year 2015, one of the resolves of the UN Millennium Declaration was to ensure that the benefits of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are available to all. A digital divide between developed and developing countries was identified, a global effort to bridge this divide was set forth, but what has the world effectively accomplished upon this goal? How do new concepts such as the Internet economy and digital convergence relate to the task of bridging the digital divide? What is the role of ICT standardization in bridging the digital divide? This paper will shed some light on these issues.
S3.4  Universal Digital Inclusion: Beyond Connectivity, Affordability and Capability
Mamello Thinyane (University of Fort Hare, ZA); Alfredo Terzoli (Rhodes University, ZA)

Traditionally digital marginalization and exclusion were understood to be a factor of connectivity to the Internet, affordability of the technology, and the capability of the communities to utilize the technology. ICT for development (ICT4D) interventions have been undertaken that address these specific factors of marginalization, however, it remains that communities are still excluded from the global knowledge society. In this paper we argue that key factors towards reaching greater inclusion and participation of the digitally marginalized communinities, are the knowledge-centricity and context-sensitivity of the undertaken interventions. The solutions developed, and the services deployed, must intrinsically encapsulate the local knowledge within the community of deployment. Based on this premise we have developed an architectural framework, named PIASK, that formalizes the contextualization of the developed applications within the socio-technical environment and positions them within the local knowledge system of the community. We highlight the components of this architecture and discuss its implementation through a knowledge platform for a community in South Africa.
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LECTURE PAPERS: Session 4 - Network architectures today and tomorrow
S4.1  RoFSO: A universal platform for convergence of fiber and free-space optical communication networks
Kamugisha Kazaura, Kazuhiko Wakamori, Mitsuji Matsumoto (Waseda University, JP); Takeshi Higashino, Katsutoshi Tsukamoto, Shozo Komaki (Osaka University, JP)

The demand on capacity and quality offered over wireless communication links has pushed researchers to innovate new design methodologies and concepts over wireless systems and networks with the ultimate aim towards achieving a Next Generation Network (NGN). Among the emerging technologies is the Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO) system described in this paper. With this technology it is possible to simultaneously transmit multiple RF signals comprised of various wireless services over FSO links using WDM technology. The technology can be applied as a universal platform for providing convergence of fiber and free-space optical communication networks extending broadband connectivity to underserved areas. We present the design concept and highlight some experimental results obtained from performance evaluation of the RoFSO system we have developed. The results demonstrate a satisfactory performance in terms of reliability and stability based on the quality metric parameters defined for the different RF services signals transmitted over the RoFSO system. Considering the potential of the RoFSO technology we propose a study for standardization work in the ITU as an initiative which can lead to its rapid adaptation.
S4.2  An ID/Locator Split Architecture of Future Networks
Ved Kafle, Hideki Otsuki, Masugi Inoue (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, JP)

The ID/locator split concept has recently been introduced into the ITU-T Study Group 13’s standardization activities for future networks. To contribute to ITU-T’s this effort, we first propose a naming system and then present a new ID/locator split architecture based on the naming system. The proposed architecture uses distinct sets of values for host identifiers and locators, thus allowing the network layer protocols to change locators without requiring the upper layers to change identifiers. This capability is helpful for designing efficient solutions to mobility and multihoming.
S4.3  Mobile-NGN Architecture based on REST concept
Yoshitoshi Murata (Iwate Prefectural University, JP)

A new Mobile-NGN architecture based on the REST (representational state transfer) concept is proposed. A mobile communication service is established by combining divided network resources such as Web services derived from REST technology in this architecture. Mobile terminals will be able to use Web services, including telephone service, via just a web browser and plug-in programs. This architecture overcomes the problems of the open heterogeneous mobile network (OHMN), which despite being based the horizontal divided business model, lets a business player who provides the call session control function (CSCF) easily control the mobile communication market. Our architecture will make it easy for new access network provides (ANPs) to enter the wireless communication market, which will accelerate competition among players, leading to the development of innovative new applications.
S4.3  Reliability and Scalability Analysis of Low Cost Long Distance IP-Based Wireless Networks
Riccardo Stefanelli, Alessandro Galardini (iXem Labs, Politecnico di Torino, IT); Daniele Trinchero (Politecnico di Torino, IT)

Low cost digital radios are sometimes proposed as an affordable tool for the realization of long distance (multikilometric - MKM) point-to-point telecommunication infrastructures in Developing Countries. To analyze the performance and the reliability of an architecture based on use of cheap wireless cards, several point-to-point links ranging from 50 up to 300 kilometers have been implemented in harsh environments. The links make use of commercial IEEE802.11a/h radios. For the purpose of the research, some modifications to the PHY and MAC layers of the standard 802.11 protocol have been implemented. Data rate enhancements have been obtained combining and transmitting several channels through the same antenna. Performance and stability have been monitored, continuously, for about 18 months. Reliability and scalability have been analyzed, taking into account the complexity of different kinds of scenarios. Interesting results have been reported, showing that, thanks to its inexpensive features, this technological solution may be used as a starting process to realize backhaul links and transport wideband connectivity in poor and isolated regions.
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LECTURE PAPERS: Session 5 - Broadband for everyone
S5.1  Innovative broadband models for digital inclusion
Supavadee Aramvith (Chulalongkorn University, TH), Prasit Prapinmongkolkarn, Akarapon Kongchanagul (National Telecommunications Commission, TH) Ekachai Phakdurong, Udomsak Luengkhwan, Chatpetch Bunyakate (Thaicom PLC, TH)

In order to provide equal telecommunications access to villages, schools and health centers in remote areas, various innovative broadband models have recently been developed jointly by operators and Thailand’s National Telecommunications Commission (NTC), using the capacity demand sharing IP-based broadband communication technique. This paper presents and compares three innovative broadband models, namely, IP broadband satellite, WiMAX and CDMA 470. Various novel concepts in systems deployment and development of ground equipment technology enabling a more efficient use of spectrum are presented.
S5.2  Dynamic Resource Management for Downlink Multimedia Traffic in OFDMA Cellular Networks
Dhananjay Kumar, Chellappan Chellappan, Srividhya Subramanian, Mariappan Pandian, Martheeswaran Mohandoss (Anna University, IN)

Because of bursty high data rate and delay sensitive nature of high quality multimedia application, the resource allocation in wireless network to meet its quality of service (QoS) has become the most challenging and interesting issue. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) employing adaptive channel allocation technique can support these requirement while increasing the system capacity many fold. Here, an efficient resource allocation method called Two Stage Rate Adaptive (TSRA) algorithm is proposed in order to meet dynamic bandwidth requirement in downlink. We model the resource allocation problem with goal of maximizing spectral efficiency. Considering random mix of four categories of multimedia traffic, we find that gap between analytical and simulated average capacity of the system gets smaller as number of user increases and at one point the simulated average system capacity exceeds 6 b/s per Hz. Further, other system parameters like average throughput, delay and BER of the TSRA protocol is presented.
S5.3  Optical Transport Networks: from all-optical to digital
Virgilio Puglia (IT); Olga Zadedyurina (University of Trento, IT)

This work gives an overview of optical transport networks evolution. Namely it describes the tendency of shifting from all-optical to digital transport networks concept. Within this context we consider two main technologies IPoDWDM and optical digital network as new solutions that replace the classical all-optical transport network model. Possible integration of different approaches is proposed.
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LECTURE PAPERS: Session 6 - Open and accessible services for digital inclusion
S6.1  iCanSee: A SIM Based Application for Digital Inclusion of the Visually Impaired Community
Hannah Thinyane (Rhodes University, ZA); Mamello Thinyane (University of Fort Hare, ZA)

The digital divide is a term often used to describe differences between rich and poor communities. This term however is more encompassing than that, as it relates to the divide between those who have access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) and those who don’t. Due to the small screen size, and resulting small font size and low contrast supported by most mobile phones, the visually impaired community fall into this category of having little access to this popular ICT. This paper presents iCanSee, a SIM based application built on a Smart Card Web Server (SCWS), developed particularly for the visually impaired community. It provides a web-based front end to the four most frequently used text-based communication tools on a mobile phone: the phone book; SMS; MMS; and email. iCanSee allows users to create their own CSS profiles, supporting changes to: background and font colour (for contrast); and font size. As the CSS file is stored on the SIM rather than the handset itself, when the user upgrades to a new mobile handset, all their settings are transferred along with other personal information such as their address book.
S6.2  An asterisk-based framework for e-learning using open protocols and open source software
Mosiuoa Tsietsi, Zelalem Shibeshi, Alfredo Terzoli, George Wells (Rhodes University, ZA)

This paper describes the conceptual design of an e-learning system that is based on open protocols and open source software. This is an initial step towards providing a framework within which remote lectures at our university can be conducted with other institutions in the Southern African region, both those that we currently have learning programs with, and those that will be forged in the future. The motivation for this effort is born out of a desire to avoid expensive and inflexible commercial tools that have been used in the past, with often undesirable effects. Our design promises to deliver most of the features that can be expected of a modern e-learning system such as a web interface, a space for lecture material, real-time audio and video support, instant messaging and the ability to convey presence. We have also identified two modes of operation, one as a web-based video archive and another as a live virtual classroom. It is hoped that this dual-mode setup will support different modes of learning for students and suit varying bandwidth restrictions among institutions.
S6.3  Innovations for Digital Inclusion: Leveraging Next Generation Networks for Human Development from the Bottom of the Pyramid
Walter Brown (Monash South Africa, ZA)

Global migration to Next Generation Networks (NGN) is progressing rapidly, driven by competition, declining revenues from traditional ICT networks, new service opportunities and cost reductions from underlying technological advances. If history follows its normal course, 72% of the world’s population will be excluded from the full benefits of this migration. This paper examines the possibility of leverage South Africa’s migration to NGNs for the development of unique ICT support networks and services for human development at the base of the country’s development pyramid (BOP). A bottom-up research strategy aimed at complementing traditional top-down human and ICT development strategies to reverse the growing levels of digital exclusion is proposed.
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LECTURE PAPERS: Session 7 - Public policies, standards and digital inclusion
S7.1  Government Role in Information and Communications Technology Innovations
Mostafa Hashem Sherif (AT&T, US); DongBack Seo (University of Groningen, NL)

In this paper we analyze Government’s role in various types of information and communications technology (ICT). In the current global financial crisis, the question is no longer about whether a government should be involved in an industry, but when and how it should intervene. We propose a framework analysis to guide public policy by combining changes in technology and in the value chain. We show how to use that framework to understand how various governments have intervened in industrial development, including standardization, and how their roles have impacted the related industries.
S7.2  New model for cost of equity evaluation in emerging markets: the telecommunication sector in Brazil
Tullio Bertini (National Telecommunications Agency, BR)

This paper proposes a new model for evaluating cost of capital in emerging markets. This model stands out by an index that weights country risk premium, on the assumption that emerging markets are partially integrated and where investors from those markets have a globally diversified portfolio. The index created under the proposed new model for evaluating cost of capital seeks to capture the potential of each asset to the risk diversification of a global market’s portfolio. The index is calculated using shares of telecommunication sectors of Brazil. The results show that the index created (Pod) to compose the model is consistent with the potential of each asset of the telecommunications sector to diversify risks of a global portfolio.
S7.3  ICT Standardization in China, the EU, and the US
Kai Jakobs (RWTH Aachen University, DE)

The paper looks at the ongoing efforts in the area of standardisation of ICT systems from a European perspective. It briefly introduces the major players in the field in the EU, China, and the US. It then looks at various aspects of the respective standardisation processes, and identifies similarities and differences. A brief SWOT analysis is also provided.
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POSTER PAPERS: Showcasing Digital Inclusion opportunities
P.1  Lower the Frequency to Trigger Digital Inclusion? A Comparative Study Among Different VHF/UHF/SHF Solutions for the Implementation of Broadband Wireless Access
Daniele Trinchero (Politecnico di Torino, IT); Riccardo Stefanelli, Federico Longobardi, Alessandro Galardini, Benedetta Fiorelli (iXem Labs, Politecnico di Torino, IT)

In the last decades the most advantageous opportunity to improve data rate and transport capacity over wireless connections has been made available by a progressive upper-shift of the frequency of the carrier. As a matter of fact, increasing the carrier frequency, channel allocation and modulation bandwidth can be increased. Unfortunately, in parallel, path losses augment, and obstacles, humidity and weather affect more negatively radio-transmissions. To face propagation losses, the number of installations is increased and the service area reduced, allowing the frequency reuse, but generating also an exponential raise of hardware costs. As a consequence, this strategy is unsuitable in Developing Countries. Inverting the trend, this paper presents a study carried out by means of several simulations, to evaluate coverage opportunities and cost impact by reducing the radiofrequency carrier, without varying any base-band characteristic of the communication platform. To this purpose, as an application example, low cost IP-based wireless cards implementing OFDM modulation were considered, at progressively lower frequencies, from 5.5 GHz down to 180 MHz. The comparison was run in real contexts, and applied to the region of El Carmen, Guayas, in Ecuador and the region, of Antsirabe Rural, Antananarivo, in Madagascar. In the first one, a proper network will be implemented by the end of 2009, in the framework of the “Innovation for Development Program” of the InterAmerican Development Bank.
P.2  On the relevance of Open Wireless Sensors for NGN
Marco Zennaro (KTH, IT); Herve' Ntareme (KTH, SE); Antoine Bagula, Gordon Inggs, Simon Scott (University of Cape Town, ZA)

Open Wireless Sensors are based on the Open Source Software and Open Source Hardware paradigms. The code used to program them and the information about the hardware design are freely released. We present the main characteristics of Open Wireless Sensor Networks (OWSNs) and report on two examples with the experimental results revealing the performance of OWSNs in terms of link quality and battery life. We demonstrate the relevance of using OWSNs in Next Generation Networks by showing the advantages of the Open Source model when applied to Wireless Sensor networks in terms of cost, personalisation and independence from a single entity as compared to proprietary solutions.
P.3  Techno-Economical Comparison Between Gpon And Epon Networks
Mauricio López Bonilla, Felipe Rudge Barbosa, Edson Moschim (State University of Campinas, BR)

Taking in consideration two leading high capacity optical access technologies, this paper presents a simple cost comparison between GPON and EPON platforms, exposing their major characteristics, making a comparative analysis to find the advantages and disadvantages between these two technologies. The work includes studies on the economic and technical feasibility of implementing a passive optical network; and the choice of valid economic and technical arguments at the moments of planning, establishing or expanding these networks in a given region. The techno-economic balance today clearly points to GPON technology, despite the high volume of IP-Ethernet data traffic which favours EPON.
P.4  A demonstrative link design of RoFSO and its Optimum performance - Indoor short range experiment and a new model of optical scintillation
Takeshi Higashino, Katsutoshi Tsukamoto, Shozo Komaki (Osaka University, JP); Kamugisha Kazaura, Kazuhiko Wakamori, Mitsuji Matsumoto (Waseda University, JP)

We have been developing a new type of DWDM Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO) system to transmit four radio services on a point-to-point optical wireless link, which can provide on universal platform for heterogeneous broadband wireless access in especially rural area with no fiber infrastructure. The developed RoFSO transceiver can directly transmit multiple radio-on-fiber signals from an optical fiber to air, and can receive an optical signal from air into a fiber core. The paper will first present transmission qualities of 3G cellular (W-CDMA), WiFi (11g and 11a), and terrestrial digital television broadcasting (DTV). Next, demonstrative optimal RoFSO link design in terms of power and noise budget for optical link loss to satisfy the radio regulations based on the measured data. The optimal optical power allocation among 4 DWDM channels for four radio services under the power limitation of eye safety regulation will be presented.
P.5  Strategies for using international domain standards within a national context: the case of the Dutch temporary staffing industry
Erwin Folmer (University of Twente, NL); Jack Verhoosel, Michael van Bekkum (TNO-ICT, NL)

This paper will discuss strategies for using international domain standards within a national context. The various strategies are illustrated by means of a case study of the temporary staffing industry.
P.6  Application of emerging wireless technologies for videoconference and telehealth in rural migrant comunities in Oaxaca, Mexico
Arturo Serrano Santoyo, Alvaro Armenta (CICESE, MX)

The state of Oaxaca is a major sending of migrants who make their way to Baja California (San Quintin) in Mexico and San Diego County (mainly to the area of Vista) in the United States. The intensity of migration flows from Oaxaca to both Baja California and San Diego County makes the area an attractive case to apply information and communications technologies (ICT) and public policy strategies to explore applications of mobile videoconferencing technology that have socio-economic impact for migrants and their families in Oaxaca. This article describes a collaborative effort of CICESE Research Center in Ensenada Mexico, the Center for Research and Education in Economics, CIDE in Mexico City and the Center for Mexico-US Studies of the University of California in San Diego. We believe that working together for a common goal of prosperity for the people of both countries using ICT’s has an important social contribution.
P.7  Digital Inclusion and Cyberart: the case of the project PROEJA Transiarte Tube
Lucio Teles, Aline Zim (University of Brasília, BR)

In this paper we discuss the activities of a group of PROEJA students (Integrated Professional Education and the Education of Young and Adults) about digital inclusion, creativity, and recovery of cultural identity as producers of cyberart. The concept of "transiarte" was developed as the art of transition between the virtual spaces (cyberart) and the real spaces (popular art). This is a project funded by CAPES / SETEC, called PROEJA-Transiarte, formed by the partnership among the University of Brasília (UnB), the Federal University of Goiás (UFG), Federal Center of Technological Education of Goiás (GO-CEFET) and Catholic University of Goiás (UCG). The concept of creativity in cyberart is understood in a broad sense, because there is no consensus on the issue. The cultural identity also happens in a broad context, where the members of the group define their parameters. Some productions are discussed from the collective and individual creation that moves from the physical to virtual art. In the context of educational research, transiarte is understood as a mean of digital inclusion, which, besides enabling the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT), can rescue the cultural identity and promote the creativity of participants.
P.8  A Design of XML Schema for Information Presentation System using Augmented Reality in New Generation Network Management
Kei Wada, Yoshihiro Kawahara, Tohru Asami (The University of Tokyo, JP)

In coming ubiquitous network society, a user who has no knowledge about network technology might have to manage his/her network including information appliances and sensor networks. Current network is, however, too difficult to manage, because protocols to access ubiquitous network devices are not same and it is not easy to identify the cause of problems if a network failure occurs. Toward uniting protocols to access devices, we have designed Tambourine framework, which uses REST API to hide SNMP, NETCONF and proprietary protocols for sensor networks and enables users to manage devices using HTTP and XML. However, Tambourine framework does not have an information presentation system which provides users with information without understanding of the network configuration. To bind real devices with the logical network configuration, we focus on Augmented Reality (AR) technology and designed an information presentation system using AR technology, which enables users to monitor the device information displayed on that device. The object overlaid on AR is configured by XML file. XML has broad utilities, and our system provides users with an information presentation which meets their requirement. Furthermore, our system has user identification system and flexible information presentation system which changes CG objects according to the user’s request.
P.9  Feasibility study and implementation by means of a pilot plan of a system of transmission of medical images for the diagnosis of patients between general doctors and medical specialists
Juan Bernal, Karen Espitia (Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas, CO)

At the moment, in the different clinics and hospitals of the country, there is a trend toward the reduction of costs and optimization of resources obeying to the new tendencies of hospitable administration, for such reason it is not possible to have specialist doctors in each hospital or center of health. This project suggests a solution through a technological route to a real problem. This technological solution is a system that allows a general doctor to take the pertinent examinations to the patient and to send them to the specialist doctor so that he interprets this and he can give his support to the general doctor of very fast and efficient way. For the analysis of patients is suggested to send diagnostic images through a transmission network using UMTS technology. UMTS has an excellent transmission speed and most importantly, the network already exists, with good coverage, which reduces costs. Using a GSM wireless modem, this serves as an interface between the network and the PC, and using software management.
P.10  Policy-based Charging and High Precision Control for Converged Multi-gigabit IP Networks
Taesang Choi, Sangsik Yoon, Sangwan Kim, Dongwon Kang, Joonkyung Lee (Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, KR)

Traditionally, charging in IP networks was managed in a simple manner such as flat-rate charging in fixed environment or packet/byte based charging in mobile environment. This is mainly due to the fact that precise traffic metering in a high-speed IP network environment was not a simple task. Control of such traffic was another big challenge. This paper addresses such complicated issues and proposes a noble solution which can precisely meter traffic in a high-speed IP networks, classify them per applications, create charging information, and control per application basis if necessary. It includes requirements, architecture, and mechanisms in a standardized manner.
P.11  Digital Inclusion through Localism
Paul Plantinga (Monash University, ZA)

The evolution to a global information society will require the federation of innumerable technologies and social systems. The resulting increase in flexibility, diversity, and complexity is both an opportunity and challenge for ICT practitioners to shape this evolution for the benefit of developing countries and marginalised communities. A conceptual framework is developed to describe the weaknesses of a centralised, top-down approach to ICT development in being able to leverage flexibility and manage complexity towards a more inclusive information society. We extend the framework by proposing an alternative approach based on a pragmatic form of localism, involving decentralised participation with national and global linkages. Following an application of the framework in a case study on a developing country’s ICT development, we use it to argue for the adoption of localism principles in the ongoing development of the Next Generation Network (NGN).
P.12  Digital inclusion opportunities in the telecommunications sector through NGN and Open Source tools: the Open IMS core experience
Alberto Diez Albaladejo, Peter Weik, Dragos Vingarzan, Thomas Magedanz (Fraunhofer FOKUS, DE)

The evolution of telecommunication networks towards a NGN may positively impact the transformation of the digital divide, a symptom of the differences in economic and social development between countries, into a digital opportunity. With regard to the telecommunication sector, the NGN evolution with its standardization process and the establishment of open APIs provides a more accessible framework for technological innovation, also for developing economies. Learning from previous experiences of development projects, this article analyzes the opportunities for the telecommunication community to contribute to the reduction of the digital divide. It also presents the experience of the authors by easing the adoption of NGN technologies through an Open Source project.
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