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Girls in ICT

Thematic regional or national studies

E-learning in Thailand: Mapping the digital divide
2022  New!  

At the initiative of the United Nations resident coordinator, and with support from the Government, ITU, together with UNESCO and UNICEF, undertook to map the digital divide in the context of school education in Thailand.

This study presents data on access to digital devices and Internet connectivity among Thai students at school and at home. It assesses schools' readiness for e-learning by analysing secondary data obtained from the National Statistical Office, the Office of the Basic Education Commission, the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society, and the NBTC.

Available inelectronic file
 
Report of BBA Regulation in CIS and Neighbouring Countries
2020  New!  

This study was initiated within the framework of the Regional Development Forum for the CIS (RFR-CIS) held in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, in October 2019. In particular, the RFR-CIS participants recommended that ITU include in its work plan a comprehensive study of the broadband regulation policies and principles, including a comparative analysis of the countries and recommendations on additional broadband development drivers.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
The creation of the Federal Institute of Telecommunications of Mexico
November 2014  

"The objective of this report is to review the reforms implemented in Mexico during 2013 to establish a new regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting and telecommunication sectors, the Federal Institute of Telecommunications (IFT). These reforms are part of a broader reform programme undertaken in Mexico covering significant areas of the Mexico Government and economy. The programme originated from the "Pact for Mexico;" a blueprint for reforms developed with broad support from the three major political parties that contains close to 95 initiatives meant to strengthen the Mexican State, promote economic and political democracy and engage citizen participation. "
Available inelectronic file
 
The creation of the Botswana Communications Regulatory Authority (BOCRA)
November 2014  

This report is one of a series of short case studies conducted globally by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) that review newly constituted or reorganised national regulatory authorities (NRA) where responsibilities have been expanded to encompass the broad spectrum of the communications sector. The aim is to highlight the experiences, challenges and solutions facing NRAs transitioning from operating in the narrower ICT sector to the wider national communications sector including the telecommunications, broadcasting, postal and courier services and operators.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
The creation of the Utilities Regulation and Competition Authority (URCA) of the Bahamas
November 2014  

This report reviews the electronic communications and broadcasting sector reform that led to the creation of the Utilities Regulation and Competition Authority (URCA) in the Commonwealth of the Bahamas.
Available inelectronic file
 
Developing successful Public-Private Partnerships to foster investment in universal broadband networks
2013  

Available inelectronic file
 
Regulation and consumer protection in a converging environment
2013  

Available inelectronic file
 
Guidelines for the preparation of national wireless broadband masterplans for the Asia Pacific region
February 2013  

These general guidelines provide countries in the Asia-Pacific region the means to develop their own wireless broadband masterplan and the opportunity to explore wireless broadband issues as part of the development of an overall country broadband masterplan. The three main objectives of the wireless broadband masterplan project are to: carry out an assessment of existing policy and regulatory frameworks; assess user demand and take up of wireless broadband applications, content and services in the Asia-Pacific region; and examine key policy and regulatory issues including licensing, spectrum access/interconnection, deployment of new technologies, rollout of obligations, incentive based regulation, infrastructure sharing, universal service obligations.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Wireless broadband masterplan for the Union of Myanmar
October 2012  

This report forms an important input into the country's broader telecommunications sector policies and strategies which have as their aim to propel the nation into a more advanced ICT economy. The implementation plans to improve Myanmar teledensity and to address its digital divide are being developed within the Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs (Ministry) especially by the Posts and Telecommunications Department (PTD).Based on an objective assessment of needs and priority, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar was one of the four countries the others being, Nepal, Samoa and Viet Nam selected by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in which ITU developed national pilot wireless broadband masterplans. The ITU Guidelines for the preparation of national wireless broadband masterplans for the Asia Pacific region provides the reference framework for the development of a national wireless broadband development. It was used extensively in the development of this report.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Wireless broadband masterplan for the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
October 2012  

This report provides an analysis of the current state of Nepal's broadband capability and recommendations for the implementation of an effective wireless broadband technology. It also considers key regulatory aspects for the provision of wireless broadband services throughout the country. The Government of Nepal is committed to ensuring that all citizens have access to effective wireless broadband services, and to encouraging a content-rich environment that will facilitate a growing online community. Nepal presents its own unique set of challenges in developing wireless broadband. Nepal is landlocked with an underdeveloped telecommunications infrastructure, a population of some 28 million people of whom 82 per cent reside in rural areas and difficult mountainous topography. The recommendations in this report are focused on achieving the maximum gains in terms of coverage, and on ensuring that the provision of fast and effective broadband services can be achieved in a short period of time.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Wireless broadband masterplan for the Independent State of Samoa
October 2012  

This report provides an analysis of the current state of the Samoa broadband capability and provides recommendations for the development of an effective wireless broadband technology. It also considers key regulatory aspects for the provision of wireless broadband services throughout the country. The Government of Samoa is committed to ensuring that all Samoans have access to effective wireless broadband services, and to encouraging a content-rich environment that will facilitate a growing online community. Samoa presents its own unique set of challenges in developing wireless broadband. Samoa is the smallest and most isolated of the four countries considered by ITU for the development of the masterplan project (the others being Myanmar, Nepal and Viet Nam). Samoa is a Pacific Island nation with a population of some 180 000 people. The country's policy requirements are therefore based predominantly on these factors. The recommendations in this report are focused on achieving the maximum gains in terms of coverage, and on ensuring that the provision of fast and effective broadband services can be achieved in a short period of time.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Wireless broadband masterplan for the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam
October 2012  

This report has been prepared for the purposes of providing an analysis of the current state of the Viet Nam wireless broadband capability and to provide recommendations for the development of effective wireless broadband technology. It also considers key regulatory aspects for the provision of wireless broadband services. The Government of Viet Nam is committed to a national strategy to strengthen the information and communication technology sector in Viet Nam with countrywide broadband information infrastructure, where access the Internet will be predominantly via wireless broadband. As such wireless broadband - both terrestrial and in more remote mountainous parts of the country satellite services - is essential to the economy and social fabric of Viet Nam and its people. Given the Viet Nam success in driving one of the world's highest rates of mobile penetration, the challenge now is to embrace convergence and facilitate the use of broadband by this large installed base of mobile subscribers. This requires both infrastructure - provided on a cost effective manner so that prices are affordable - and content. On both fronts, there remain challenges.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Toward Universal Broadband Access in Australia - The National Broadband Network
July 2012  

"In April 2009, the Australian Government announced that it would establish a company that would invest up to AUD 43 billion Australian dollars over the next eight years to build and operate a wholesale-only, open access National Broadband Network. This study serves as an update to a previous case study carried out in 2009 which outlined the development of Australian policy toward the universal obligation and the development of rural and regional services in the period prior to and including the announcement of the National Broadband Network. "
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Cloud Computing in Africa - Situation and Perspectives
April 2012  

This report covers a 2012 study of cloud computing in Africa and puts forward recommendations advocating, on the one hand, the establishment of political and regulatory frameworks and appropriate training programmes to facilitate the advent of cloud computing, and, on the other hand, popularization of the technology.
Available inelectronic file
 
Roadmap for the Transition from Analogue to Digital Terrestrial Television in Nepal
February 2012  

The Nepal National Roadmap Team (NRT) has developed a digital switch-over (DSO) policy for a smooth switch-over to digital in phases, conversion starting with transmitters with the highest coverage of population and each phase having coverage equivalent to that of the existing analogue transmission. Simulcast will continue within the coverage zone of a particular transmitter till at least 90 per cent of the viewers who were receiving analogue are equipped with a set top box (STB) or integrated digital television (IDTV) so that they continue to receive programmes without interruption after which the analogue switch-off (ASO) of that station takes place. The analogue equivalent digital coverage is expected to be completed in five years and complete ASO has been targeted for December 2017. The first digital experimental transmission is expected to start from Kathmandu, having the highest population, by July 2012. The NRT has recommended DVB T2 as the digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) standard in Nepal and DVB-H as the standard for mobile television (MTV). Though standard selection has been made for MTV, its implementation will have a lower priority and would be taken up on market demand and after implementation of the DTTB plan.
Available inelectronic file
 
Roadmap for the Transition from Analogue to Digital Terrestrial Television in Sri Lanka
February 2012  

The roadmap for transition from analogue to digital terrestrial television broadcasting in Sri Lanka covers the short term digital switch-over (DSO) and long term DSO objectives and the activities managed by the NRT. However, this report does not include: 1) The introduction of Mobile TV, because frequency channel in UHF band is exhausted by current TV broadcasting services. Nevertheless, mobile TV remains a long term DSO objective and b) The introduction of digital radio. In this case, digital radio remains a long term DSO objective and will be reviewed once the analogue switch-off (ASO) has been completed. The Sri Lanka television market is characterized by a great number of national and commercial TV services and a wide choice of TV platforms (analogue and digital cable, satellite TV, IPTV). The TV market in Sri Lanka is mainly a free-to-air terrestrial TV market with a total of 23 TV licence holders. Sixteen broadcasters are currently in operation. The aim of the roadmap is reflected in the DSO objectives.
Available inelectronic file
 
Transition from analogue to digital terrestrial television in Cambodia - Roadmap
December 2011  

This roadmap for transition from analogue to digital television in Cambodia covers the short-term digital switch-over (DSO) objectives (until about one year after analogue TV switch-off, see also item c) and the activities managed by NRT.
Available inelectronic file
 
Development of a Digital Terrestrial Television Migration Roadmap for Mongolia
November 2011  

Available inelectronic file
 
Roadmap for the Transition from Analogue to Digital Terrestrial Television in The Kingdom of Tonga
November 2011  

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) selected the Kingdom of Tonga (Tonga) as the sole Pacific Ocean nation to receive its assistance to develop a roadmap for transition to DTTB. This publication provides the reference framework for generic digital television roadmap development. It was used extensively in the development of this report.The Tonga National Roadmap Team (NRT) has proactively taken a number of key decisions that were stimulated by the ITU Guidelines document. Subject to Cabinet ratification, two key roadmap milestones now determined are analogue switch-off (ASO) on 15 June 2015, and commencement of digital terrestrial television broadcasting on 15 June 2013. To meet these dates from a project management perspective, funded approval to proceed with construction of associated DTTB infrastructure will be necessary by about June 2012. The NRT has also selected its transmission standard, its compression standard and a number of other factors that now enable it to move forward with detailed planning activities, subject to regulatory approval12.
Available inelectronic file
 
5G implementation in non-European Union countries of the Europe region
2021  

This report offers an in-depth dive in 18 non-European Union countries of the Europe region, and also provides the aggregate perspective across these countries. 5G implementation must be approached proactively and based on a solid understanding of the market, regulatory, and policy conditions at the country level.

The report fills a gap in the European context, complementing the work done for EU countries through the EU 5G Observatory focusing on certain strategic, market, technical and regulatory aspects specific to each of the countries considered. It pinpoints a few particular challenges to 5G implementation encountered across multiple countries and where ITU could be of active support: i) the need for a 5G strategy, ii) the need to free the 700 MHz band for mobile communications while protecting broadcasting services, iii) the need to proactively address electromagnetic field policy and communication, and iv) the need to create local 5G innovation ecosystems and synergies at the country level.

Available inelectronic file
 
Colombia country review: Regulation at the forefront of digital transformation
2023  New!  

Available inelectronic file
 
Cadre de mise en place de l'infrastructure à clés publiques du Gouvernement du Mali
2022  New!  

Le Mali a décidé de se doter d'un cadre de mise en place d'une infrastructure à clés publiques (cadre ICP) pour renforcer les capacités nationales en matière de transactions électroniques, de protection contre la fraude à l'identité, d'intégrité des données, de confidentialité des données, d'authentification forte et de non-répudiation, de confiance et de facilité d'utilisation des services en ligne pour les citoyens.

L'infrastructure ICP est un catalyseur de la transformation numérique des services publics en ligne, des services bancaires en ligne et du commerce électronique car elle augmente la confiance des utilisateurs dans l'environnement numérique. Ce rapport propose une analyse et étude comparative des plateformes de signatures électronique et un modèle pour la future ICP nationale au Mali.

Available inelectronic file
 
Egypt's digital transformation and collaborative regulation
ITU has developed a series of national country reviews on collaborative digital regulation, in partnership with government authorities, national stakeholders and recognized experts. Based on ITU's established evidence-based tools, the ICT Regulatory Tracker and the G5 Benchmark, the country reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory and governance frameworks, policies, and practices in each studied country.
no image available2023  

ITU has developed a series of national country reviews on collaborative digital regulation, in partnership with government authorities, national stakeholders and recognized experts. Based on ITU's established evidence-based tools, the ICT Regulatory Tracker and the G5 Benchmark, the country reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory and governance frameworks, policies, and practices in each studied country.
Available inelectronic file
Other editions:   2023  
 
Brazil country review: regulation in the digital transformation
ITU has developed a series of national country reviews on collaborative digital regulation, in partnership with government authorities, national stakeholders and recognized experts. Based on ITU's established evidence-based tools, the ICT Regulatory Tracker and the G5 Benchmark, the country reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory and governance frameworks, policies, and practices in each studied country.
2023  New!  

ITU has developed a series of national country reviews on collaborative digital regulation, in partnership with government authorities, national stakeholders and recognized experts. Based on ITU's established evidence-based tools, the ICT Regulatory Tracker and the G5 Benchmark, the country reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory and governance frameworks, policies, and practices in each studied country.
Available inelectronic file
 
Collaborative regulation for digital transformation in Kenya: A country review
The country reviews highlight diverse experiences and different policy and regulatory patterns while exploring good practices, challenges and lessons learnt by regulators in navigating digital transformation. The country reviews also help develop a better understanding of the role and impact of collaboration and collaborative governance, and the use of new tools for regulating ICT markets.
2023  New!  

The country reviews highlight diverse experiences and different policy and regulatory patterns while exploring good practices, challenges and lessons learnt by regulators in navigating digital transformation. The country reviews also help develop a better understanding of the role and impact of collaboration and collaborative governance, and the use of new tools for regulating ICT markets.
Available inelectronic file
 
Collaborative regulation: Accelerating Nigeria's digital transformation
2023  New!  

ITU has developed a series of national country reviews on collaborative digital regulation, in partnership with government authorities, national stakeholders and recognized experts. Based on established evidence-based tools, the ITU ICT Regulatory Tracker and the ITU G5 Benchmark the country reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory and governance frameworks, policies, and practices in each studied country.
Available inelectronic file