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Publications on Economics & Finance

ICT infrastructure business planning toolkit
2019  New!  

The ICT infrastructure business planning toolkit offers regulators, policymakers, and stakeholders a practical methodology for the accurate economic evaluation of proposed broadband infrastructure installation and deployment plans. The expert guidance offered by the toolkit will greatly facilitate the development of a credible and coherent business plan that is adaptable to a wide range of broadband infrastructure deployment projects.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for Africa
2019  New!  

ITU published the findings of a global study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation in September 2018. Following this report, The Economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for Africa presents a set of econometric analyses that estimate the contribution of broadband and digital transformation on the economy, as well as the impact of ICT policy and regulations on the development of the digital economy in the Africa region. In addition, it provides substantial evidence on the impact of institutional and regulatory variables on the growth of the digital ecosystem.

The outcomes of this regional report may serve as key reference material to illustrate the impact of fixed and mobile broadband on the economy, where the regions stand in terms of digitization and the impact of digitization on GDP. This could assist countries in conceptualizing the process of launching evidence-based digital transformation strategies.

Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the Americas

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2019  New!  

This study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Americas region. It provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth and further illustrates how broadband technologies combined with effective ICT regulation can positively impact the growth of national economies and prosperity.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
The economic contribution of broadband, digitalization and ICT regulation
2018  

Today's digital transformation is changing our economies at warp speed and scale. The ITU study on "The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation" examines this revolution from a data perspective. It quantifies the positive impact of broadband, digital transformation, and the interplay of ICT regulation on national economies thanks to a new-generation of mature econometric modelling techniques.

Importantly, the study builds on years of robust and reliable data resources to measure the impact of institutional and regulatory variables on the development of the digital ecosystem using top-tier data metrics on the digital ecosystem and the maturity of ICT regulatory frameworks, namely the Digital ecosystem development index and the ITU ICT regulatory tracker.

The study found evidence that broadband technologies and effective ICT regulation can have a positive impact on the growth of national economies and prosperity. The findings also provide a more refined picture of the effects of broadband on countries at a different stage of development. It further provides evidence of the importance of the regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth. More broadly, the study makes the case for wider adoption of digital technologies and digital policies across the globe, which will be instrumental in evidence-based decision-making across ITU Membership.

Available inelectronic file
 
ITU International Mobile Roaming (IMR) Strategic Guidelines
2018  

The IMR Strategic Guidelines are part of the ITU Let's Roam the World initiative launched in 2015 by Mr Brahima Sanou, Director of the ITU Development Bureau (ITU-D), and have been drafted in collaboration with regional regulatory and other relevant associations. The aim of this report is to build the foundation for harmonized guidelines around the world to improve the delivery of IMR services for the benefit of consumers, to reduce what are generally perceived as high mobile roaming retail prices, and to enhance efficiency and transparency of retail roaming prices and services
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
El ecosistema digital y la masificación de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) en Nicaragua
2018  

The objective of this country study on the use of ICTs and the digital ecosystem in Nicaragua is to present the actual situation of the development of the information technologies in the country, considering, among other important aspects, the telecommunication/ICT policies and regulatory environment and the institutional structure. It also describes the implementation of projects and initiatives that lead to the execution of national plans for the provision of mass access to ICT. This study is available in Spanish.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
The APP economy in Africa: economic benefits and regulatory directions
2017  

This report provides an overview of the development of the App Economy in Africa, as well as an assessment of the current state of regulation with emphasis on instances of successful collaborative regulation. It focus on the actual and potential economic benefits and policy and regulatory settings of the App Economy. Country cases for Ghana and South Africa are included. Recommendations to policy makers and regulators are provided concerning tools for collaborative regulation that enhance consumer choice, promote affordable pricing and maintain a level playing field for all players.

This publication is also available at the ITU Digital Ecosystem Portal

Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Estudio de Caso: El ecosistema digital y la masificación de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) en Panamá
2017  

The objective of this study is to present the actual situation of the development of the digital ecosystem in Panama, considering, among other important aspects, the telecommunication/ICT policies and regulatory environment, the institutional structure and the implementation of projects and initiatives that lead to the implementation of national plans for the provision of mass access to ICT. This study is available only in Spanish.
Available inelectronic file
 
El ecosistema digital y la masificación de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
2017  

The objective of this study is to present a diagnosis of the development of the digital ecosystem in Bolivia, considering, among other important aspects, the telecommunication/ICT policies and regulatory environment, the institutional structure and the implementation of projects and initiatives that lead to the application of national plans to provide mass access to ICT. This study is available only in Spanish.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Medición de la Independencia Formal de Autoridades Regulatorias en Telecomunicaciones utilizando un adaptación del Índice Gilardi
2016  

This study focuses on measuring the formal independence of the Telecom/ICT National Regulatory Authorities. In this report, an index based on the work of Gilardi (2002, 2005) was used to measure this independence in the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas region. The estimation of this index will allow a better understanding of the degree of independence of regulators in Regulatel Member States. Such independence is an essential element to know the institutional strength of a regulatory agency and its ability to achieve its objective of simulating competition, reducing the market failures generated in network economies such as the telecommunications sector. This study is a contribution from the ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) to the work being done within the framework of the Grupo de Trabajo sobre Fortalecimiento Institucional del Foro de Reguladores Latinoamericanos (Regulatel). This publication is available only in Spanish.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
A Case Study of ONA - East Africa One Network Area roaming initiative
2016  

In 2015, The BDT Director launched the ITU Let's roam the world initiative to follow up on previous work in the area of international mobile roaming, and this ITU report is part of the work done under the initiative. The ONA model is good example of a multi-country initiative for the creation of a harmonized enabling environment for the international mobile roaming market with the objective of enhancing affordable access to roaming services for both voice and data. It shows that despite price reductions, and the emergence of a range of alternative technologies and calling solutions, prices are still high, and actions are still being taken by ICT Regulatory Associations to make roaming affordable to all consumers. This report also illustrates the importance of having inclusive dialogue at national and regional level in defining appropriate solutions for business, regulation, and policy issues.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Assignment and use of radio spectrum - policy guidelines and economic aspects
2016  

This study seeks to provide guidelines on policy and economic aspects in relation to assignment and use of the radio-frequency spectrum so as to place NRAs, decision-makers and telecommunication/ICT service operators in a position to make efficient and optimal use of the spectrum, endeavouring to extract maximum benefit from the spectrum in the short and long term while maintaining the necessary balance with other key factors (e.g. coverage obligations, secondary market, etc.). It also seeks to provide an economic assessment of the impact that the conditions and price in a frequency auction exert on the provision of services. Edition October, 2016. Available in English and Spanish.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
El ecosistema digital y la masificación de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones en Paraguay
2016  

The objective of this study is to present a diagnosis of the development of the digital ecosystem in Paraguay, considering, among other important aspects, the telecommunication/ICT policies and regulatory environment, the institutional structure and the implementation of projects and initiatives that lead to the application of national plans to provide mass access to ICT.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Estudio de Caso: el Ecosistema Digital y la Masificación de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones en República Dominicana
2015  

This study corresponds to the country case study about the Digital Ecosystem and adoption of Information Technologies and Communications (ICT) in Dominican Republic. The main objective of this study is to analyze the digital ecosystem in the country focusing on three key elements: the regulatory environment, the institutional structure and the status of development for the implementation of telecommunications policies and plans to integrate ICTs in the country.
Available inelectronic file
 
Regulatory analysis of international mobile roaming services
2014  

This report offers practical advice on investigating international mobile roaming services and provides the context and information needed to do two things: first, to choose the approach to roaming; and second, to run the day-to-day investigation that will follow. Edition August, 2014.
Available inelectronic file
 
A Practical Guide on Benchmarking Telecommunication Prices
2014  

This practical guide explains how to develop a benchmark of telecommunications prices, why a regulator might want to do so, and how the benchmark should be interpreted and applied. The steps involved are explained with reference to hypothetical benchmarking exercises together with actual price benchmarks developed by communications sector regulators. Edition August, 2014.
Available inelectronic file
 
Banda Ancha en los países andinos: Tecnología, Regulación y Mercado: Análisis de Situación y Perspectivas 2015
2014  

This study aims to provide an analysis on the stage of the Andean countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) on three important aspects of the development of broadband, such as technology, regulation and market. It intends to serve as a guide to help the members of the Andean Sub region in the definition of public policies and strategies that promote benefits of the broadband market and ICT in general. This study was prepared by BDT in strong coordination with ASETA. It is available only in Spanish. Edition September, 2014.
Available inelectronic file
 
Universal service funds and digital inclusion for all
2013  

The underlying concept of Universal Service is to ensure that telecommunications services are accessible to the widest number of people (and communities) at affordable prices. However, increasingly over the last two decades, telecommunications administrations and national regulatory authorities (NRAs) have been turning to the concept of a specific universal service funding mechanism designed as an incentive to encourage operators to assist these administrations in achieving their universal service goals. This funding mechanism is referred to as a Universal Service Fund ('USF').
Available inelectronic file
 
Competition and regulation in a converged broadband world
2013  

This report takes as its starting point a number of salient facts about the converged broadband world. Driven by the availability of novel and innovative services, demand for bandwidth is growing substantially. Services rather than the underlying technology drive the customers' choice of broadband connection. The economies of scope brought about by convergence are reflected in bundling of services. A range of different access technologies co-exists with mobile broadband services gaining in importance not just in countries where fixed infrastructure is poor, but also in developed economies with almost universal fixed line coverage. The paper then discusses the implications of these developments for market definition. It gives a brief summary of the key principles used by regulatory and competition authorities for establishing the boundaries of the relevant market and then looks at the extent to which different broadband technologies can be said to compete with each other in light of these principles.
Available inelectronic file
 
International mobile roaming services: Facilitating competition and protecting users
2013  

This paper examines some of the approaches taken in order to try and synthesize those best practices and suggest steps that can be taken to improve the economic efficiency of IMR markets, as well as indicate potential deficiencies in policies. The paper builds on the earlier work of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in particular the 2008 and 2012 Global Symposium for Regulators discussion papers, recommendations from ITU-T and the International Telecommunication Regulations and analysis by the Organization for Co-operation and Development (OECD) on this issue in addition to regional initiatives, such as those by the European Union, the African Union and the Arab Regulators Network.
Available inelectronic file
 
Taxing telecommunication/ICT services: an overview
June 2013  

General and special taxes on telecommunication/ICT services are not the only direct or indirect interaction between the finance ministry and telecommunications/ICT operators. In addition, customs taxes on telecommunication equipment or devices have an impact. This paper contains a general, introductory discussion of the effects of imposing special taxes on telecommunications/ICT equipment and services in addition to the general run of taxes, such as VAT, which apply to most or all goods and services.
Available inelectronic file
 
Study on International Internet Connectivity in Sub-Saharian Africa
March 2013  

This report analyses the various actors in the provision of Internet connection and the role played by each one, as well as the bottlenecks that can lead to inefficiencies and associated costs in the sub-Saharan Africa. It also sets out concrete recommendations to enable conditions for healthy and dynamic competition in the market as well as for the reduction of the cost of Internet connectivity at the international level. It also proposes measures to encourage use of the Internet, and to promote development of local content especially in developing countries.
Available inelectronic file
 
Study on International Internet Connectivity - Focus on Internet connectivity in Latin America and the Caribbean
March 2013  

This report focuses on the key Internet interconnection issues at national and international levels, as well as the stakeholder and their characteristics in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. It also describes the role of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) and Network Access Points (NAPs) and their importance in the development of broadband, as well as the significant role of the backbones.
Available inelectronic file
 
Strategies for the deployment of NGN in a broadband environment - Regulatory and economic aspects
March 2013  

This report identifies the key issues in NGN and NGA migration as well as the benefits from the change. This indicates that moving to a broadband based economy has wider benefits - far beyond the telecoms industry. The movement to NGN in emerging economies has to face other problems, not seen in the developed economies that have generally been the ones to implement broadband. It provides a number of proposals that can assist with the development of strategies for NGN deployment. Although any such deployment has some risks, these can be countered with the question of: what are the risks to the economy and national competitiveness if there is no NGN investment and peer countries do make the transition.
Available inelectronic file
 
Guidelines for the Application of Statistical Models to Telecommunication Market Regulation
2011  

These guidelines discuss the application of statistical tools in specific situations related to telecommunication market regulation. The science of statistics is today an effective means of accurately describing the values of economic, political and social data. Thus, an expert in the use of statistical tools is able to interpret results from the benefit of the company, the government and society and thereby facilitate decision-making, and to infer the future behavior of events similar to those analyzed.
Available inelectronic file
 
Developments of Next Generation Networks (NGN): Country Case Studies
December 2009  

The move to Next Generation Networks (NGN) has been discussed in the ICT community for some time. Not only discussed. Developments in the market reflect the move, where a number of market players around the world are already operating NGN core networks, increasing numbers of market players are deploying NGN access, and others have made significant commitments to roll out fibre access networks (FTTx) or have migration plans for moving to all-IP networks. The aim of this document is to present the current situation of NGN development in different regions of the world and to examine what effect the transition towards NGNs is having on regulation.
Available inelectronic file
 
Regulatory Accounting Guide
March 2009  

This guide focuses on the implementation of cost accounting models and the development of regulatory policies, based on best practices, to help National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) implement a regulatory accounting model. It also provides a methodology to identify markets, Significant Market Power (SMP) operators and the different typologies of anticompetitive behavior.
Available inelectronic file
 
Mobile Termination Rates: To Regulate or not To Regulate
2009  

Over past few years mobile termination charges - the charges that mobile operators levy on each other and on fixed network operators for terminating calls on their networks - have become a concern in many countries throughout the world. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the development of MTR regulation in the different regions of the world and to evaluate the necessity and the scope of such regulation.
Available inelectronic file
 
Efficient Operator: Methodologies, modeling and application for tariff regulation
November 2008  

Regulation is not the ideal way to encourage market competition. It is always preferable to encourage market competition. However, there are "market failures" when the market is not perfectly efficient in allocating resources, leading to suboptimal distribution among the population. Therefore, the aim of any market regulation should be to replicate what happens in a market under conditions of perfect competition. This study sets forth and analyses the methodologies for fixing tariffs used in the modeling of an efficient operator, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages and looking at the results of a number of recent applications in Chile, Venezuela and Colombia.
Available inelectronic file
 
Broadband Telecommunications in Latin America
February 2008  

Technologies and broadband services today acquire a key role in regional development, modernization of all economic activities and social and evolution towards the information society and digital economy. This report was compiled and analyze the status of programs, actions, recommendations and solutions for access technologies and broadband services. This is available only in Spanish.
Available inelectronic file
 
International Mobile Roaming Regulation - An incentive for cooperation
March 2008  

This paper addresses a variety of issues raised by international mobile roaming charges: how do they differ from charges for non-roaming international mobile calls (i.e. when a mobile subscriber calls an international number from its home country); what is the structure of their costs; is there a need for regulatory intervention and, if so, how could they be regulated; and finally, is cooperation and coordination on international mobile roaming regulation beneficial?
Available inelectronic file
 
Regional diagnosis of telecommunication policies, strategies and regulations, and the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Latin America
September 2007  

Application of ICTs in the areas of education, health and disasters in rural areas, between other, in isolated regions and in marginalized urban areas are of major importance. This study presents a complete diagnosis of the telecommunications policies and regulations, and strategies for the development of Information and Communication Technology in Latin America. Available only in Spanish.
Available inelectronic file
 
Trends in Economics and Finance Volume II: Use of Economic Modelling in Telecommunications
2006  

In the telecommunication industry, economic modelling techniques such as regression analysis, simulations and linear programming are powerful tools that can aid decision making for governments, regulatory authorities and telecommunication operators. Nevertheless, in many countries such techniques are often under-employed. The aim of this report is to describe the various economic modelling techniques and how they can be used to solve practical problems facing the telecommunication industry: for example how a proposed merger may affect competitive behaviour or how demand and profitability may be affected by a price change.
Available inCD/DVD   paper   electronic file
 
Study on the application of cost models in Latin American and Caribbean countries
August 2004  

This study is a complete assessment of the situation in each Latin American and Caribbean countries with regards with the application of cost modeling for the calculation of cost of the different telecommunications/ICT services. It also describes the importance of modeling and the different costing methodologies applied by the LAC administrations.
Available inelectronic file
 
COSITU Version 1.0 SP2 - Software for the Calculation of Costs, Tariffs and Rates for Telephone Services
2004  

Cost-based pricing, in particular calculation of interconnection rates, has been one of the most high-profile challenges facing both operators and regulators. Negotiating tariffs or rates is a delicate matter, whether it is for a new operator entering a liberalized market or a regulator wishing to set affordable tariffs for national calls without compromising competitiveness among operators. Now, ITU's Market, Economics and Finance Unit has released COSITU, a practical tool which automates the calculation of costs, taxes, tariffs and rates. This powerful tool will permit network operators, service providers, regulators and policy-makers in developing countries to efficiently calculate costs, taxes related to trade in international traffic (accounting, settlement and termination rates), interconnection rates between local operators and tariffs for national and international telephone services, both fixed and mobile. COSITU SP2 is a bilingual software package (software on CD-ROM + user manual: English/Spanish and English/French versions).
Available inCD/DVD   electronic file
 
Economic Study for Financing Telecommunication Development
January 2003  

The ITU is committed to assist its Member States, especially Less Developed Countries (LDC), in creating an atmosphere for investment; and to facilitating the marriage between potential investors and recipients. In particular, the ITU/BDT is tasked with analyzing and fostering these relationships, and this paper is intended to serve both Member States and investors in creating the means for telecommunication development.
Available inelectronic file
 
Study on IP-based networks: Pricing of telecommunication services
January 2003  

This study is concerned with pricing and different categories of quality of service over IP networks, with a view to the provision of real-time IP services. In providing information about this topic the report also analyses several academic studies (supplied by the ITU) in terms of their contribution to the topic, and explains the business case for international bypass offered by IP networks.
Available inelectronic file
 
Investing in Telecommunications and ICTs in Developing Markets: Shifting the Paradigm
2003  

Telecommunications and ICTs have become a key infrastructure necessary for human development. As the sector has transformed into one driven by commercial interest, one question begs to be answered: what actions can be taken to stimulate private investment in the sector, particularly in countries and regions where the opportunities are less obvious? This report provides insight into answers to this question by analysing trends, examining risk factors facing potential investors and by identifying specific investment opportunities in developing markets. Finally, the report makes specific recommendations to the various stakeholders on actions that can be taken to 'shift the paradigm' so that investment will be attracted to those markets most in need.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Trends in Economics and Finance Volume I: Cost, Tariff and Interconnection Rates - Calculation Methodology and Application to Case Studies
2001  

This publication is aimed in particular at network operators and regulatory authorities in developing countries who do not have very detailed data at their disposal on their costs or on the development of prices in their market. The first part describes a model for the calculation of telephone service costs, tariffs and interconnection taxes. The second part shows how the application of this model in different situations (case studies) allows for the identification of national political demands concerning universal service obligations.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
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Financial Institutions Offering Resources for Telecommunication Projects and Technical Assistance in Developing Countries
Fourth edition, 1999  

This publication, divided into three categories (multilateral agencies, bilateral agencies and funds), aims at providing easy reference to institutions which provide resources for telecommunication projects and technical assistance in developing countries. It acts as a guide to the main sources of financing for development for governments, regulators and public telecommunication entities, as well as private institutions and enterprises.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
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Estudio de caso: El ecosistema digital y la masificación de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones (TIC) en Ecuador
2019  New!  

The objective of this country study on the use of ICTs and the digital ecosystem in Ecuador is to present the actual situation of the development of the information technologies in the country, considering, among other important aspects, the telecommunication/ICT policies and regulatory environment and the institutional structure. It also describes the implementation of projects and initiatives that lead to the implementation of the national plans for the provision of mass access to ICT. This study is available in Spanish.
Available inpaper   electronic file