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ITU Thematic Reports

Maximising availability of international connectivity in the Pacific
2018  

This report builds on the 2017 ITU Report Maximizing availability of international connectivity in developing countries; strategies to ensure global digital inclusion, and a workshop, Enhancing Access to submarine cables for Pacific Island Countries, organized together with the Pacific Island Telecommunications Association, with support from the Department of Communications and the Arts, Government of Australia, and the Department of Communications, Government of Fiji, to undertake a stock take of the existing and planned submarine cables connecting the Pacific Islands, provide some illustrative case studies, and identify common challenges for submarine cable projects in the Pacific Islands.
Available inelectronic file
 
Digital identity in the ICT ecosystem: An overview
2018  

This paper defines digital identity, provides an overview of the various types of digital identity systems, looks at different approaches taken and the range of challenges being faced, as well as opportunities that arise from using digital identity platforms.
Available inelectronic file
 
Powering the digital economy: Regulatory approches to securing consumer privacy, trust and security
2018  

The report provides an outline of the value and the functioning of the digital economy, as well as requirements and considerations in terms of ICT and privacy regulation. It explores the issues of online privacy, trust and security, and how these influence and drive online data business models and data markets. It further examines the notion of trusted digital identity and what it means in terms of security by providing examples of digital identity systems.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Setting the scene for 5G: opportunities and challenges
2018  

Prepared in collaboration with the ITU's Standardization and Radiocommunication Bureaux, this report sets out the landscape for ICT policy-makers, national regulatory authorities (NRAs) and operators as the expectation of 5G technologies to transform citizens, businesses, governments and economies becomes a reality.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Regulatory challenges and opportunities in the new ICT ecosystem
2018  

The hallmark of the new ICT ecosystem is ever deepening interconnectivity - everything is connected to everything else and more so every day. New forms of regulatory co-operation across industries and across the globe are the only way to ensure that the positive dimensions of the new ICT ecosystem are enjoyed by consumers who are assured protection against its negative potential.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Quality of Service Regulation Manual
2017  

Ensuring quality of service (QoS) in this ever-changing environment is increasingly critical. A harmonized and common approach to regulating QoS would enable greater quality prospects irrespective of the locations of the consumer and service provider. This manual refers to different standards and regulatory practices from different regions and countries worldwide noting that each region and each country has its own specificities. It is intended to be used as a guiding tool for telecommunication national regulatory agencies (NRAs) or government ministries in charge of QoS and QoE (quality of experience) parameters and measurements as defined by ITU-T, as well as enforcement mechanisms. It further introduces more hands-on information regarding the QoS and QoE big picture, as well as outlining practical approaches in QoS regulation for telecommunication/ICT services.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Maximising availability of international connectivity in developing countries: Strategies to ensure global digital inclusion
2017  

Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Global ICT Regulatory Outlook
2018   Publication Notice with Order Form

The Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2018 is the second edition of a landmark ITU series. The Outlook focuses on policy and regulatory trends in the ICT sector and brings together cutting-edge research on various topics. It also explores for the first time regulatory collaboration across the board. The report provides organic analysis based on home-grown data, expertise and analytics.

The Global ICT Regulatory Outlook is targeted at a wide audience of ICT professionals, including ICT regulators and ministries, Chief Regulatory Officers, policy advisers and academia.

Access to soft copies have been made available to ITU Members and sector members via their individual TIES access. For more information, please contact ITU Sales or refer to the Publication Notice.

Available inpaper   electronic file
Other editions:   2017  
 
Digital financial services: Regulating for Financial Inclusion - An ICT Perspective
2016  

This report sheds light on some of the most important issues that policy makers and regulators face in accelerating the spread of mobile financial services, while ensuring that the market develops competitively. It focuses on the regulatory and competition issues that have most at stake and are the most pressing. In doing so, the report aims to help regulators support the key contribution of ICT to digital financial inclusion using mobile networks, introducing those that are unbanked and underbanked into the digital economy.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Broadband series: Using regulatory impact analysis to improve decision making in the ICT sector
09.2014  

This report takes stock of current RIA developments and discusses potential opportunities and challenges of the implementation of RIA in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector. Several examples of application of RIA in the ICT sector are illustrated, and a check-list for regulators are presented at the end of this report, with the aim to providing advice to ICT regulators on how to successfully use the RIA tool in their daily regulatory decisions. This report also examines how regulatory impact assessments (RIA) can make a difference in shaping sound policy and decision-making processes and regulation in the ICT sector. RIA is increasingly used as a policy tool to estimate and measure the effects of proposed or existing regulations by enabling a structured definition of the policy problem and a detailed comparison of available regulatory options. The use of RIA also marks a trend towards a more empirically-based and analytic approach to regulating the sector. It is important therefore to inform regulators on how to handle related issues in order to make the best use of tools such as RIA, and thus increase confidence in regulatory decision-making.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Broadband Series: Regulating Broadband Prices
April 2012  

The affordability and accessibility of broadband services are largely determined by the prices that are charged for those services. The regulation of prices can thus be a very tempting prospect for policymakers and regulators who want to increase the adoption and use of broadband services at the earliest time. However, price intervention in broadband markets is a risky proposition and potentially damaging to the long-term development of those markets.The premise of this paper is that regulators should refrain from regulating prices in broadband markets, particularly while those markets are still developing, further investment is still required, and demand remains uncertain.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Broadband Series: Exploring the Value and Economic Valuation of Spectrum
April 2012  

This paper explores the current economic philosophies and public policy debates over spectrum valuation - particularly in light of the overwhelming demand for new spectrum resources for broadband wireless access (BWA) services. It reviews the growing body of thought about valuation, as well as the variables and factors that may change based on situation and location. It also reviews how this process has begun playing out across the world as governments seek to make spectrum available for wireless Internet access. The goal of this paper is to provide some insight into how spectrum value may be assessed in different situations. The stakes have never been higher, considering the increased bandwidth demand for the delivery of mobile broadband and the consequent scarcity of the spectrum resource. Also, the challenges posed by the emergence of market choices (based on national and regional spectrum allocation decisions as well as choices of technology standards) further increases the spectrum valuation complexity. On this point, the need for spectrum harmonization plays an important role; as any potential cross-border interference or adjacent band interference can negatively impact on the economic value of spectrum.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Broadband Series: Impact of Broadband on the Economy
April 2012  

The diffusion of broadband, defined as the technology that enables high-speed transfer of data, is inextricably linked to the emergence of the Internet. While at its initial stages the Internet was primarily accessed through dial-up means1, consumer and enterprise demand prompted the development of technologies that facilitated access at higher speeds. As a result, starting around the mid-1990s, telecommunications and cable TV companies began offering services that significantly enhanced the experience of Internet use. Investment and adoption soared around the world. The purpose of this study is threefold. On one hand, it presents the evidence generated by the different bodies of theory regarding the economic impact of broadband. The purpose is not only to summarize but also to present the complexities and conditions under which broadband has an impact. On the other hand, it reviews the results of research the author has conducted across the world measuring the impact of broadband on economic growth and employment creation. In this context, it presents a methodology for calculating the investment necessary to implement national broadband plans. Finally, it outlines the public policy implications, which can stimulate deployment and maximize the impact of the technology.
Available inelectronic file
 
Broadband Series: Regulation of Global Broadband Satellite Communications
April 2012  

"This paper sets out the universe of broadband satellite technology and explains why it is so vital for the expansion of multimedia services and applications around the world. In order to help readers fully appreciate the potential of satellites, this paper will briefly describe their system architectures, the technical characteristics of air interfaces and the different broadband services and applications that can be delivered through satellite systems. The paper also deals with international, regional, and national practices for satellite system approaches for broadband delivery. Satellites as a component of IMTAdvanced and the use of satellites for disaster relief work are then explained. ITU practices for use of spectrum/orbit resource and some of the important satellite coordination issues that have the potential to block new satellites (including the ones that may serve the broadband markets) and that are to be discussed during the ITU World Radiocommunication Conference-12 (WRC-12) early in 2012, are also highlighted. Aspects concerning the economics of satellites systems and market entry issues are followed by thoughts on best satellite regulation practices and challenges to further broadband access for all. "
Available inelectronic file
 
The economic impact of broadband in the Philippines
2012  

This study focuses on assessing the economic impact of broadband in the Philippines. It analyses the relative impact of fixed and mobile wireline and wireless broadband communications. The measurable economic impact of ICT infrastructure depends heavily on the timing of introduction, existing adoption conditions and market maturity. As studies of the lagged impact of ICT have demonstrated (Hardy, 1980; Jorgenson et al., 2006; Karner and Onyeji, 2007), the significant economic impact of ICT does not materialize immediately after the introduction of a new technology. Broadband services represent a market that has contributed to the evolution of the Philippine economy during the last decade. To measure this contribution, a structural model, relying on four simultaneous equations that model the market operation was constructed for each of the two countries.
Available inelectronic file
 
The economic impact of broadband in Panama
2012  

"This report assesses the economic impact of broadband in an emerging nation. Drawing from the wealth of research literature on economic effects generated on the basis of cross-sectional analyses (e.g. for OECD, Latin America and Arab States), it applies econometric tools and techniques to measure the impact of broadband on the Panamanian economy. Future challenges for Panama include applying the lessons learned from wireless voice services to fixed broadband, and by leveraging its highly competitive industry structure, to accelerate mobile broadband adoption. Wireless broadband represents the appropriate technological platform to meet this challenge."
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Strategies for the promotion of broadband services and infrastructure: a case study on TFYR Macedonia
2012  

The major goal of this study is to analyze and review TFYR Macedonia's progress in deploying broadband networks and services, particularly in the context of various regional initiatives (such as eSEE, eSEE+ and bSEE) and European Union (EU) efforts to promote the development of ultrafast broadband, as well as other relevant aspects of the Digital Agenda. This case study focuses on legal and regulatory developments, while referring to other important SEE initiatives and the Digital Agenda. Section 2 briefly summarizes key demographic, political and economic variables for The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Section 3 addresses the situation of broadband in TFYR Macedonia, giving an overview of fixed and mobile broadband markets. Section 4 discusses the current legal and regulatory frameworks, while Section 5 describes Macedonia's obligations deriving from EU and regional initiatives. Finally, Section 6 draws conclusions and summarizes the lessons learned from TFYR Macedonia's experience deploying broadband.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Strategies for the promotion of broadband services and infrastructure: a case study on Romania
05.2012  

This case study aims to provide insights into efforts by the Government and the communications regulator to stimulate the development of broadband infrastructure and services in Romania. It covers the period 2007-2012 i.e., from the point of Romania's accession into the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007 until today. This case study has been developed in the context of the activities of the ITU/UNESCO Broadband Commission for Digital Development, with the cooperation of ITU's Regulatory and Environment Division to address the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It underlines the importance of broadband and ICTs in achieving the MDGs and therefore aims to assist countries in meeting the Broadband Challenge and Broadband Targets 2015 adopted by the Broadband Commission for Digital Development in October 2011.
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Strategies for the promotion of broadband services and infrastructure: a case study on Albania
2012  

"This country case study addresses the development of a National Broadband Plan in Albania and in particular the development of the institutional framework together with the development of Electronic Communications policy and legislation and how this has influenced the development of the National Broadband Policy of 2012. The case study analyses the development of the Sector and how government champions and policy direction has provided the basis for the development of broadband in the country, including with the definition of ICT as a key pillar for the development of its economy and the integration of ICTs into various sectors of the economy. The case study also reviews the role of the Electronic Communications regulator and other ICT stakeholders involved in the broadband ecosystem from setting the goals of the Plan, to defining and implementing the necessary policy and legislative measures, to fostering widespread application of modern technologies in all sectors of the economy and society. "
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Strategies for the promotion of broadband services and infrastructure: a case study on Mauritius
2012  

"This report addresses the development of the ICT sector in Mauritius and in particular the development of ICT policy and how this has influenced the development of the National Broadband Policy 2012-2020 of January 2012 in Mauritius. The case study analyses the pre-existing conditions which have facilitated the implementation of broadband on the island, including the definition of ICT as a key pillar for the development of its economy through its Cyber Island Strategy and accompanying actions, including the definition of a clear institutional, policy and legal and regulatory framework. The case study reviews the role of the ICT regulator, sector Ministry and other ICT stakeholders involved in the broadband ecosystem from setting to achieving the goals of this Plan, fostering widespread application of modern technologies and reporting on the ensuing social and economic benefits for consumers/citizens. "
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Strategies for the promotion of broadband services and infrastructure: a case study on Sri Lanka
2012  

"The Government recognized ICT and broadband as drivers and catalysts for economic growth and has taken many initiatives to boost ICT to fuel the local industry. This case study provides an insight to broadband development in Sri Lanka, examining the initiatives adopted and policies that are currently being developed. It also discusses the role of the agencies involved and regulatory measures taken by the regulator to foster broadband development in Sri Lanka. "
Available inpaper   electronic file
 
Strategies for the promotion of broadband services and infrastructure: a case study on Nigeria
2012  

This case study looks at the initiatives taken by the Nigerian Government and the communications regulator to encourage the growth of broadband built-out and use in Nigeria. It looks back at the period between 2006 and 2010 and forward to the likely impact of the latest broadband strategy of the Government. This country case study is part of a series developed by the ITU and the Broadband Commission for Digital Development. It seeks to highlight the importance of broadband in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Whilst widespread broadband use can contribute to all of the MDGs, in the context of Nigeria it can help to lower levels of poverty (through job creation) and help to meet education and health goals related to the MDGs. The Broadband Commission for Digital Development aims to assist countries in meeting the Broadband Challenge and Broadband Targets 2015 it adopted in October 2011.
Available inpaper   electronic file