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WARC SAT-77

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the Broadcasting-Satellite Service in Frequency Bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (Regions 2 and 3) and 11.7-12.5 GHz (Region 1) (Geneva, 1977)

10 January - 13 February 1977 - Geneva, Switzerland

The 1977 World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the Broadcasting-Satellite Service in Frequency Bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (Regions 2 and 3) and 11.7-12.5 GHz (Region 1) was a specialized world radio conference that dealt specifically with the broadcasting satellite service. At the time, it was one of the largest world-wide planning conferences held in the field of broadcasting. The main objective of WARC SAT-77 was to develop a plan for broadcasting satellites. Therefore, the Conference was devoted to the drawing up of detailed plans and associated policy considerations and procedures to permit the future development of radiocommunication services for broadcasting and television, as well as policy plans that would impact the future use of the fixed satellite and terrestrial services. In effect, the Conference established the foundation of satellite broadcasting.

A great deal of preparation took place prior to the conference. Notably, a CCIR Joint Working Party submitted a technical report that included data for planning the use of the 12 GHz band by the broadcasting-satellite service and the technical criteria for the sharing of this band. In addition, the IFRB gathered information on the foreseeable requirements of administrations for the broadcasting-satellite service and arranged it in a form suitable for planning exercises and comparative studies. These materials were sent to all administrations prior to the Conference. Furthermore, since satellite broadcasting was a relatively new field, preparatory regional seminars were held for the Latin American, Asian, and African and Arab countries in order to familiarize the administrations with the various aspects of the problems involved in such a planning conference and the various factors which would have to be taken into consideration as the work of the conference progressed. Ensuring equitable access to the spectrum so that orbital positions would be available to developing countries when they were eventually ready to launch and use broadcasting satellites was a significant concern to many Member States.

More than 600 delegates took part in the work of the Conference. The traditional structure of an administrative conference was adopted and eight committees were set up. However, the Conference faced a number of technical and practical challenges. Consequently, in addition to the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the conference, a Special Vice-Chairman was elected to coordinate and appraise the activities of Committees 4 (Technical), 5 (Planning), and 6 (Procedures) to ensure that the work of these committees resulted in fair and balanced planning.  

The growing importance of computers and data processing to the work of ITU was apparent throughout the work of the Conference. In his closing remarks the Chairman underlined the necessity of the computer facilities used by the individuals who carried out the planning work. The Conference relied heavily on a program and computer provided by Télédiffusion de France, as well as other programs from the European Broadcasting Union, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Finally, the formal updating of the list of requirements and the final analyses of the draft plans and the Plan was carried out successfully by the IFRB using ITU computing and printing facilities in Geneva.

By the close of the Conference, the following points were achieved:

  • the establishment of a Plan for the broadcasting-satellite service in Regions 1 and 3 (the whole world except the Americas);
  • the adoption of a set of principles to govern the broadcasting-satellite service in Region 2 (the Americas), pending the holding of a regional radio conference and establishment of a detailed plan no later than 1982; and
  • the establishment of a method for making changes in the Plan.

In addition, in order to prepare for the upcoming World Administrative Radio Conference in 1979, WARC SAT-77 was asked to consider the report prepared by the Group of Experts on the possible rearrangement of the Radio Regulations. After making minor changes to the proposals in the report, the Conference instructed the Secretary-General to draw up and distribute the final text concerning the rearrangement of the Radio Regulations, which would essentially serve as a basis for telecommunication administrations of Member States to present proposals to the 1979 Conference.

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the Broadcasting-Satellite Service in Frequency Bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (Regions 2 and 3) and 11.7-12.5 GHz (Region 1) (Geneva, 1977)
Use the tabs below to explore the different publications, documents, and resources related to this event. The History of ITU Portal uses Persistent Identifiers for its digitized documents. To copy a Persistent ID, hover the cursor over the document link and then right-click on it.
Final Acts of WARC SAT-77 (Geneva, 1977)(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Actes finals de la CAMR SAT-77 (Genève, 1977)(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Actas Finales de la CAMR SAT-77 (Ginebra, 1977)(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Final Acts of WARC SAT-77 (Geneva, 1977)(Chinese)download PDF PDF (acrobat)

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Final List of Documents of WARC SAT-77 (Geneva, 1977)(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 1-100(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 101-200(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 201-300(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 301-388(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document DT No. 1-53(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document DL No. 14-50(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document RR(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Liste finale des documents de WARC SAT-77 (Genève, 1977)(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 1-100(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 101-200(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 201-300(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document No. 301-388(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document DT No. 1-53(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document DL No. 14-61(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Document RR(French)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Lista Final de Documentos de WARC-SAT-77(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Documentos No. 1-100(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Documentos No. 101-200(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Documentos No. 201-300(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Documentos No. 301-388(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Documentos DT No. 1-53(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Documentos RR(Spanish)download PDF PDF (acrobat)

Chairman

Mr. I. Lønberg (Denmark)

Countries participating

111

List of participants

List of Participants of WARC SAT-77 (Geneva, 1977)(Multilingual)download PDF PDF (acrobat)

Further Reading

Butler, R. E. "Direct Broadcasting as a Factor in the Development of International Telecommunication Policy: The ITU World Administrative Radio Conference for the planning of the broadcasting-satellite service ." Telecommunication Journal 43, no. 4 (1976): 300-306.(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Mili, M. "Satellite Broadcasting." Telecommunication Journal 44, no. 2 (1977): 42-43.(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
"The World Broadcasting Satellite Conference has Completed its Work." Telecommunication Journal 44, no. 3 (1977): 91.(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)
Lønberg, I. "The Broadcasting-Satellite Conference." Telecommunication Journal 44, no. 10 (1977): 482-488.(English)download PDF PDF (acrobat)

Library Catalogue

Link to the ITU Library Catalogue (Geneva, 1977)(Multilingual) URL
YearConference NameAcronymRadio ServicesRegionsPlace

1903

Preliminary Conference on Wireless Telegraphy (Berlin, 1903)

Mobile - MaritimeWorldBerlin

1906

International Radiotelegraph Conference (Berlin, 1906)

Mobile - MaritimeWorldBerlin

1912

International Radiotelegraph Conference (London, 1912)

Mobile - MaritimeWorldLondon

1927

International Radiotelegraph Conference (Washington, 1927)

All servicesWorldWashington, D.C.

1929

European Radiotelegraph Conference (Prague, 1929)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesPrague

1932

International Radiotelegraph Conference (Madrid, 1932)

All servicesWorldMadrid

1933

European Radio Conference (Lucerne, 1933)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesLucerne

1938

International Radiocommunication Conference (Cairo, 1938)

All servicesWorldCairo

1939

European Broadcasting Conference (Montreux, 1939)

Mobile - Aeronautical, BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesMontreux

1947

International Radio Conference (Atlantic City, 1947)

All servicesWorldAtlantic City

1947

International HF Broadcasting Conference (Atlantic City, 1947)

BroadcastingWorldAtlantic City

1948

European Broadcasting Conference (Copenhagen, 1948)

CERBroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesCopenhagen

1948

Regional Maritime Radio Conference (Copenhagen, 1948)

MAR-48Mobile - MaritimeRegional - Radio ConferencesCopenhagen

1948

International Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference (1st Session) (Geneva, 1948)

Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1948

International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference (1st session) (Mexico City, 1948-1949)

CIRAFBroadcastingWorldMexico City

1949

Special Administrative Conference for the North-East Atlantic (LORAN) (Geneva, 1949)

Mobile - MaritimeRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1949

Administrative Radio Conference for Region 1 (Geneva, 1949)

All servicesRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1949

Administrative Radio Conference for Region 3 (Geneva, 1949)

All servicesRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1949

North American Regional Broadcasting Conference (1st Session) (Montreal, 1949)

NARBABroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesMontreal

1949

International Telecommunication Union Region 2 - Fourth Inter-American Radio Conference (Washington, D.C., 1949)

All servicesRegional - Radio ConferencesWashington, D.C.

1949

International Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference (2nd Session) (Geneva, 1949)

Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1950

North American Regional Broadcasting Conference (2nd Session) (Washington, D.C., 1950)

NARBABroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesWashington, D.C.

1950

2nd International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference (Florence-Rapallo, 1950)

CIRAFBroadcastingWorldFlorence-Rapallo

1951

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1951)

EARC-51All servicesWorldGeneva

1952

European Broadcasting Conference (Stockholm, 1952)

CERBroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesStockholm

1959

Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1959)

All servicesWorldGeneva

1960

Special Regional Conference (Geneva, 1960)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1961

European VHF/UHF Broadcasting Conference (Special Regional Conference) (Stockholm, 1961)

CERBroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesStockholm

1963

African VHF/UHF Broadcasting Conference (Geneva, 1963)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1963

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference to allocate frequency bands for space radiocommunication purposes (Geneva, 1963)

EARC-63SpaceWorldGeneva

1964

African LF/MF Broadcasting Conference (Geneva, 1964)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1964

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference for the preparation of a revised allotment plan for the aeronautical mobile (R) service (1st session) (Geneva, 1964)

EARC-64Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1966

African LF/MF Broadcasting Conference (Geneva, 1966)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1966

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference for the preparation of a revised allotment plan for the aeronautical mobile (R) service (2nd session) (Geneva, 1966)

EARC-66Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1967

World Administrative Radio Conference to deal with matters relating to the maritime mobile service (Geneva, 1967)

WARC MarMobile - MaritimeWorldGeneva

1971

World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications (Geneva, 1971)

WARC-71 SpaceWorldGeneva

1974

Regional Administrative LF/MF Broadcasting Conference (Regions 1 and 3) (1st session) (Geneva, 1974)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1974

World Maritime Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1974)

WMARC-74Mobile - MaritimeWorldGeneva

1975

Regional Administrative LF/MF Broadcasting Conference (Regions 1 and 3) (2nd session) (Geneva, 1975)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1977

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the Broadcasting-Satellite Service in Frequency Bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (Regions 2 and 3) and 11.7-12.5 GHz (Region 1) (Geneva, 1977)

WARC SAT-77Mobile - Maritime, BroadcastingWorldGeneva

1978

World Administrative Radio Conference on the Aeronautical Mobile (R) Service (Geneva, 1978)

WARC-Aer2Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1979

World Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1979)

WARC-79All servicesWorldGeneva

1980

Regional Administrative MF Broadcasting Conference (Region 2) (1st session) (Buenos Aires, 1980)

RARC-1BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesBuenos Aires

1981

Regional Administrative MF Broadcasting Conference (Region 2) (2nd session) (Rio de Janeiro, 1981)

RARC-2BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesRio de Janeiro

1982

Regional Administrative Conference for FM Sound Broadcasting in the VHF band (Region 1 and certain countries concerned in Region 3) (1st session) (Geneva, 1982)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1983

Regional Administrative Conference for the planning of the Broadcasting-Satellite Service in Region 2 (Geneva, 1983)

RARC SAT-83Broadcasting, SpaceRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1983

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Mobile Services (Geneva, 1983)

WARC MOB-83Mobile - Land, Mobile - Maritime, Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1984

Regional Administrative Conference for FM Sound Broadcasting in the VHF band (Region 1 and certain countries concerned in Region 3) (2nd session) (Geneva, 1984)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1984

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the HF Bands Allocated to the Broadcasting Service (1st session) (Geneva, 1984)

WARC HFBC-84BroadcastingWorldGeneva

1985

Regional Administrative Radio Conference for the Maritime Mobile Service and the Aeronautical Radionavigation Service in certain parts of the MF band in Region 1 (Geneva, 1985)

Mobile - Maritime, Mobile - AeronauticalRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1985

Regional Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of Frequencies for Maritime Radiobeacons in the European Maritime Area (Geneva, 1985)

Mobile - MaritimeRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1985

Regional Administrative Radio Conference of the Members of the Union in the African Broadcasting Area to abrogate certain parts of the Geneva Agreement (1963) (Geneva, 1985)

GE85BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1985

Regional Administrative Radio Conference of the Members of the Union in the European Broadcasting Area to revise certain parts of the Stockholm Agreement (1961) (Geneva, 1985)

BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1985

World Administrative Radio Conference on the use of the geostationary-satellite orbit and the planning of the space services utilizing it (1st session) (Geneva, 1985)

WARC ORB-85SpaceWorldGeneva

1986

Regional Administrative Radio Conference to establish a plan for the broadcasting service in the band 1605-1705 kHz in Region 2 (1st session) (Geneva, 1986)

RARC BC-R2(1)BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1986

Regional Administrative Radio Conference for the planning of VHF/UHF television broadcasting in the African Broadcasting Area and neighbouring countries (1st session) (Nairobi, 1986)

RARC AFBC(1)BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesNairobi

1987

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the HF Bands Allocated to the Broadcasting Service (2nd session) (Geneva, 1987)

WARC HFBC-87BroadcastingWorldGeneva

1987

World Administrative Radio Conference for the Mobile Services (Geneva, 1987)

WARC MOB-87Mobile - Land, Mobile - Maritime, Mobile - AeronauticalWorldGeneva

1988

Regional Administrative Radio Conference to establish a plan for the broadcasting service in the band 1605-1705 kHz in Region 2 (2nd session) (Rio de Janeiro, 1988)

RARC BC-R2(2)BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesRio de Janeiro

1988

World Administrative Radio Conference on the use of the geostationary-satellite orbit and the planning of the space services utilizing it (2nd session) (Geneva, 1988)

WARC ORB-88SpaceWorldGeneva

1989

Regional Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of VHF/UHF Television Broadcasting in the African Broadcasting Area and Neighbouring Countries (2nd session) (Geneva, 1989)

RARC AFBC-2BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1989

Regional Administrative Conference of the Members of the Union in the African Broadcasting Area to abrogate the Regional Agreement for the African Broadcasting Area (Geneva, 1963) (Geneva, 1989)

AF+BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

1992

World Administrative Radio Conference for Dealing with Frequency Allocations in Certain Parts of the Spectrum (Málaga-Torremolinos, 1992)

WARC-92All servicesWorldMalaga-Torremolinos

1993

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 1993)

WRC-93All servicesWorldGeneva

1995

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 1995)

WRC-95All servicesWorldGeneva

1997

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 1997)

WRC-97All servicesWorldGeneva

2000

World Radiocommunication Conference (Istanbul, 2000)

WRC-2000All servicesWorldIstanbul

2003

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2003)

WRC-03All servicesWorldGeneva

2004

Regional Radiocommunication Conference for planning of the digital terrestrial broadcasting service in parts of Regions 1 and 3, in the frequency bands 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz (Geneva, 2004)

RRC-04BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

2006

Regional Radiocommunication Conference for planning of the digital terrestrial broadcasting service in parts of Regions 1 and 3, in the frequency bands 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz (2nd session) (Geneva, 2006)

RRC-06BroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

2006

Regional Radiocommunication Conference for the revision of the Stockholm 1961 Agreement, in the frequency bands 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz (Geneva, 2006)

RRC-06-Rev.ST61 / RRC-06-EURBroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

2006

Regional Radiocommunication Conference for the revision of the Geneva 1989 Agreement, in the frequency bands 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz (Geneva, 2006)

RRC-06-Rev.GE89 / RRC-06-AFRBroadcastingRegional - Radio ConferencesGeneva

2007

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2007)

WRC-07All servicesWorldGeneva

2012

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2012)

WRC-12All servicesWorldGeneva

2015

World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2015)

WRC-15All servicesWorldGeneva

2019

World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-19) (Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt)

WRC-19N/AWorldSharm el-Sheikh