Policy on Intellectual Property Right (IPR)
1 Introduction
1.1 Data communication over electrical power lines
2 Characteristics of radio frequency emission from PLT Systems
2.1 Radiation sources in a PLT system
2.1.1 Differential-mode and common-mode currents
2.1.2 Generation of the common-mode PLT current
2.1.3 Common-mode current launched at the PLT modem output port
2.1.4 Converted common-mode current
2.1.6 Shielding effectiveness of the exterior walls of a house
3 Radio system characteristics, protection criteria, and impact of PLT systems on radiocommunication systems
3.1 Broadcasting
3.1.1 General characteristics of analogue LF, MF and HF broadcasting
3.1.2 General characteristics of DRM digital LF, MF and HF broadcasting
3.1.3 LF, MF, HF and VHF radio broadcasting frequency ranges
3.1.4 Protection criteria and acceptable interference
3.2 Amateur and amateur satellite
3.2.1 General characteristics
3.2.2 Amateur frequency allocations
3.2.3 The protection requirements of the HF amateur radio service
3.3 Aeronautical mobile and Radionavigation
3.4 General protection criteria considerations HF fixed and land mobile
3.4.1 Protection criteria and protection requirement
3.4.2 A possible protection criteria
3.4.3 Automatic link establishment systems
3.5 Maritime mobile
3.5.1 Background
3.5.2 Frequencies allocated for maritime communications
3.5.3 Receiver parameters for the maritime mobile service in MF and HF bands
3.6 Radiolocation
3.7 Fixed
3.7.1 Fixed system characteristics
3.7.2 Protection criteria
3.8 Radio astronomy
3.9 Standard frequency and time
4 Potential means for preventing or eliminating interference
4.1 Mitigation factors and methods for power line communications
4.1.1 Attenuation of conducted signals
4.1.2 Frequency band exclusions
4.1.3 Geographical exclusion zones
4.1.4 Consultation area requirements
4.1.5 Adaptive interference techniques
4.1.6 Interference complaint procedures
4.1.7 PLT operator database
4.2 Studies of mitigation techniques
4.2.1 Study of mitigation techniques in Brazil
5 Overall conclusions
Annex 1 Noise, radiation and propagation considerations
A1 Noise, radiation and propagation considerations
A1.1 Noise level in the HF band
A1.1.1 The ambient noise environment
A1.1.2 Measuring the ambient noise floor
A1.1.3 Determination of the noise level
A1.2 Propagation mechanisms
A1.2.1 Near-field and ground-wave propagation
A1.2.2 Sky wave propagation
A1.2.3 Examples of propagation calculations and studies
Annex 2 Analyses of potential interference
A2 Analyses of potential interference
A2.1 A modelling analysis for the radio astronomy service
A2.1.1 Uses of HF bands by the RAS
A2.1.2 Separation distances between a RA antenna and a PLT system in the HF region
a) Direct path calculation
b) Ionospheric propagation
A2.1.3 Discussion
A2.1.4 Conclusions
A2.2 Overview of power line telecommunication (PLT) systems interference to the broadcasting service
A2.2.1 Introduction
A2.2.2 Interference effects into low VHF television
A2.2.3 Interference effects into the HF band
A2.2.4 Summary and conclusions
A2.3 Effects of interference from PLT into the broadcasting service below 30 MHz
A2.4 Methodology for calculation of cumulative HF skywave interference from PLT systems
A2.4.1 NATO skywave interference example into Winnipeg, Canada
Cumulative PLT tool execution within MATLAB is shown below:
A2.4.2 NTIA study on ionospheric propagation and aggregation of Access PLT emissions
A2.4.3 Results on calculation of cumulative HF sky-wave interference caused by power line telecommunication systems
1 Power radiated from a single PLT system
2 Cumulative treatment of distributed PLT systems
3 Calculation of the cumulative field strength distribution through HF sky-wave propagation
A2.4.4 Compatibility study results between the radio astronomy observations in the HF band and cumulative HF sky-wave interference caused by in-house power line telecommunication systems
A2.5 Experimental results of the subjective assessment test on HF analogue broadcast reception interfered with by PLT
A2.5.2 Test results
A2.5.3 Test equipment
A2.6 Compatibility analysis regarding protection requirements of HF aeronautical mobile radio in relation to PLT in-house devices
A2.6.1 Introduction
A2.6.2 Study assumptions
A2.6.3 Compatibility model/geometrical computation
A2.6.4 Evaluation threshold for the aeronautical radio
A2.6.5 Results of the analysis
A2.6.6 Other determinants
A2.6.7 Requirements toward PLT devices for protecting the HF aeronautical mobile service
Annex 3 Radio frequency emissions from PLT systems
A3 Radio frequency emissions from PLT systems
A3.1 Measurement of access PLT non intentional radiated RF levels on HF bands
A3.1.1 Introduction
A3.1.2 Objective
A3.1.3 Interference concept
A3.1.4 Test description
A3.1.5 Comments
A3.1.6 Possible mitigation technique
A3.1.7 Conclusions
A3.2 Measurements of the radiated emissions from in-house power line telecommunications devices into the residential environment in Canada
A3.2.1 Introduction
A3.2.2 Conducted power measurement Test procedure and results
A3.2.3 Field strength measurements Procedure and results
A3.2.4 Conclusions
A3.3 Measurement results of the radiated emissions from in-house power line telecommunications systems into the residential environment in the test conducted in Japan
A3.3.1 Introduction
A3.3.2 Measurement method
A3.3.3 Condition of PLT communication
A3.3.4 Measurement result
A3.4 Measurement results of leaked emissions by access power line telecommunication (PLT) system in the HF and the UHF bands
A3.4.1 Introduction
A3.4.2 Field experiment at Mt. Akagi, Japan, in July 23, 2002
A3.4.3 Leaked emissions in the HF band
A3.4.4 Spurious emission in the UHF band
A3.4.5 Comparison of the PLT noise level with Recommendation ITU-R RA.769 at 327 MHz
A3.4.6 Conclusions
A3.5 Distance separation measurements
A3.5.1 Distance separation measurements in Brazil
A3.5.2 Distance separation measurements in Canada
A3.5.3 Distance dependence of the leaked electric field caused by in-house PLT systems separation measurement in Japan
Appendix 1 to Annex 3 Measurements of EM radiation from in-house PLT devices operating in a residential environment Field Test Report
Annex 4 Design examples of PLT technology
A4 Design examples of PLT technology
A4.1 Examples of a PLT network topology
A4.2 General design considerations
A4.2.1 Media access control
A4.2.2 Repeaters
A4.2.3 Multiplexing and multiple access approaches
A4.2.4 Distance
A4.3 PLT network architectures on MV distribution lines
A4.4 PLT network architectures on low voltage distribution lines
A4.4.1 Low density PLT network topology
A4.4.2 High density PLT network topologies
A4.4.3 PLT star network topology
A4.4.4 PLT tree network topology
A4.4.5 PLT multi-floor network topology