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ITU and its Activities Related to Internet Protocol (IP) Networks

      

Chapter Four: Internet Protocol-Related Activities in the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector

4.1              Introduction and Mission

The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)[1] is one of the three Sectors of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (see overview in Section 1.3). ITU-T was created on 1 March 1993 within the framework of the "new" ITU, replacing the former International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) whose origins go back to 1865.

The Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) is the executive arm of the Telecommunication Standardization Sector, and is headed by a Director elected by ITU Member States. The current Director is Houlin Zhao (China).

The ITU-T mission is to ensure an efficient and on-time production of high quality standards (Recommendations) covering all fields of telecommunications except radio aspects.

4.2              Activities

Standardization work is carried out by 13 Study Groups, in which representatives of the ITU-T membership develop Recommendations for the various fields of international telecommunications. The priority fields of study currently include:

  • IP interworking and related matters;
  • Network aspects of mobility;
  • Network access technologies (xDSL);
  • Optical networking technologies;
  • Tariff and accounting issues,
  • Multimedia services and systems.

ITU’s IP-related standards are being developed in cooperation with other standards development organizations (SDOs) to add to ITU’s long-term expertise in telecommunications to the process of developing new Internet standards and the evolution of old ones. For more details, see Annex 2: ITU-T Cooperation with Standardization Development Organizations (SDOs), Forums and Consortia. For example, a number of ITU-T IP-related standardization activities are done in cooperation with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). A common interest mapping of IETF Working Groups to ITU-T Study Groups is available on the ITU-T Study Group 13 website.[2] ITU-T also conducts seminars and workshops within its domains of competence. The ITU-T publishes news and public information on its activities, including through a bimonthly newsflash that provides updates on its activities.[3]

4.3              Products

The main products of ITU-T are the Recommendations. At present, more than 2 700 Recommendations (Standards) are in force. Recommendations are standards that define how telecommunication networks operate and interwork. ITU-T Recommendations are non-binding, however they are generally complied with due to their high quality and because they guarantee the interconnectivity of networks and enable telecommunication services to be provided on a worldwide scale. Other products include ITU-T Handbooks and Supplements. All ITU-T Recommendations are published online[4] and up to three Recommendations can be downloaded electronically for free per year, per e-mail address.

4.4              Structure

The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Study Groups (SG) and their Working Parties are at the core of the standardization work. They study “Questions” and elaborate the Recommendations.

The Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group (TSAG) reviews priorities, programmes, operations, financial matters and strategies for the Sector, follows up on the accomplishment of the work programme, restructures and establishes ITU-T Study Groups, provides guidelines to the Study Groups, advises the Director of TSB, elaborates A-series Recommendations on organization and working procedures.

The World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA), which takes place every four years, defines general policy for the Sector, establishes the Study Groups and approves their work programme for each study period of four years, as well as appointing the Study Group Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen.

The next World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA-04)[5] will be held in Florianópolis, Brazil from 5-14 October 2004. Immediately before WTSA-04, on Monday 4 October 2004, the ITU-T will organize a one-day “Symposium on Cybersecurity".

4.5              Accelerated Working Methods

ITU-T’s working methods have changed considerably, in response to changes in the telecommunications sector and the requirements of ITU-T’s membership.  For example, consider the approval process and time delays for ITU-T Recommendations during the last 15 years:

  • Prior to 1988 approvals took place every four years.
  • From 1989 to 1993, the cycle was two years.
  • From 1993 to 1996, it took only 18 months to approve a Recommendation.
  • From 1997 to 2000, this was further shortened, to 9 months (5 months in exceptional circumstances).
  • From 2002 on, a new process permits approval in 4 weeks (best case), with an average of 8 weeks, for technical Recommendations (vast majority of the work), while Recommendations that have a regulatory implication (a minority) still take 9 months.

ITU-T’s working methods are described in the A-series Recommendations, available at:

and in Resolution 1 of the World Telecommunications Standardization Assembly (WTSA), available at:

A database of current work in ITU-T can be accessed at:

and

4.6              Cost of Membership

The cost of becoming an ITU-T Sector Member is currently about USD 25 000 per year.  A limited membership (Associate) costs approximately USD 8 000 per year.

ITU membership fees are waived under certain circumstances, subject to approval by the ITU Council, its immediate governing body.

4.7              Brief Overview of ITU-T IP Networks and Internet related Activities

During last few years, there has been a large reorientation towards IP-related standardization and accelerated procedures. A brief overview of some of the related activities is given for each relevant Study Group.

4.8              ITU-T Study Group 2

ITU-T Study Group 2 (SG2)[6] is responsible for studies relating to:

  • principles of service provision, definition and operational requirements of service emulation;
  • numbering, naming, addressing requirements and resource assignment including criteria and procedures for reservation and assignment;
  • routing and interworking requirements;
  • human factors;
  • operational aspects of networks and associated performance requirements including network traffic management, quality of service (traffic engineering, operational performance and service measurements);
  • operational aspects of interworking between traditional telecommunication networks and evolving networks;
  • evaluation of feedback from operators, manufacturing companies and users on different aspects of network operation.

SG2 is the Lead Study Group on Service definition, Numbering, Routing and Global Mobility. Some specific examples of related responsibilities include:

  • E.164 international numbering plan;
  • E.212 mobile (“IMSI”) codes;
  • ENUM: mapping between the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) and the E.164 numbering plan;
  • E.164 numbering resources for IP telephony (e.g. UPT 878 code allocated for testing);
  • ITU-T Study Group for ongoing activities related to management of Internet names and addresses issues.

4.9              ITU-T Study Group 3

ITU-T Study Group 3 (SG3)[7] is responsible for studies relating to:

  • Tariff and accounting principles for international telecommunication services and study of related telecommunication economic and policy issues. To this end, Study Group 3 shall in particular foster

Box 4.1: Inside a Study Group: examples of activities

Examples of some ongoing activities in ITU-T Study Group 2

·        Workshops on Member States’ experiences with ccTLDs (2003 & 2004) and IDN (latter scheduled in 2004);

·        SG2 work on ENUM and “.int” (2004 and 2005);

·        SG2 Information Document 24: Implications for numbering, naming and addressing of the convergence of the Internet and the Telco networks - ECC Report 26 (October 2003);

·        SG2 Information Document 23: DNS Root server mirror service (September 2003);

·        Workshop to develop a Recommendation to clarify the management of “.int” (15-16 September 2003), resulting in SG2 work on a draft Recommendation;

·        Regional ENUM and IDN Workshops (with SPU) in Thailand (25-26 August 2003);

·        Circular 168: IP Policy Manual (June 2003);

·        SG2 Information Documents 21 and 22: The RIR System and IPv6 Address Management (May 2003);

·        Circular 160: Questionnaire on Member States’ Experiences with ccTLDs (April 2003);

·        Workshop on Member States’ experiences with ccTLDs (3-4 March 2003);

·        Circular 139: Developments regarding Internationalized Domain Names (December 2002);

·        Circular 125: Developments with respect to Management of Internet Domain Names and Addresses (September 2002);

·        Circular 105: ENUM administration ad-interim (June 2002);

·        SG2 Information Paper 17: Introduction to Secure DNS (May 2002);

·        SG2 Information Paper 15: A policy look at IPv6: Tutorial paper (April 2002);

·        TSAG/IANA correspondence on improvement of cooperation process (June 2002-February 2003);

·        Tutorial Workshop on IPv6 (6 May 2002);

·        Tutorial Workshop on ENUM (8 February 2002);

·        SG2 Information Document 10: Global implementation of ENUM: a tutorial paper (February 2002);

·        SG2 Information Documents 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the DNS (January 2002);

·        Circular 26: ENUM Awareness;

·        Continuing work in SG2 on ENUM, resulting in Supplements, draft Recommendations, and interim procedures.

  • collaboration among its Members with a view to the establishment of rates at levels as low as possible consistent with an efficient service and taking into account the necessity for maintaining independent financial administration of telecommunication on a sound basis.

One of the most relevant of related SG3 activities is Recommendation D.50 regarding Internet traffic exchange or so-called "peering" or transit arrangements between Internet service providers and Internet backbone providers which is needed in order for the ISPs to obtain global Internet connectivity for users of the Internet. This system works well in most industrialized countries, but for developing countries the issue of access to the Internet remains costly and is often suffering from lack of bandwidth and capacity.

A special Rapporteurs Group which deals with ITU Recommendation D.50 about international Internet connections (IIC) regarding transit or exchange of traffic on the international Internet backbone networks is continuing the discussions, particularly with regard to revision, if any, of ITU-T Recommendation D.50.[8]

4.10           ITU-T Study Group 4

ITU-T Study Group 4 (SG4)[9] is responsible for studies relating to:

  • the management of telecommunication services, networks, and equipment using the telecommunication management network (TMN) framework.
  • Also responsible for other telecommunication management studies relating to designations, transport-related operations procedures, and test and measurement techniques and instrumentation.

SG4 is ITU’s Lead Study Group on TMN. Some examples of recent activities related to IP-based networks include:

  • developing framework for unified management of integrated circuit-switched and packet-based networks (with initial emphasis on IP-based networks);
  • active in IMT-2000 3rd generation mobile and beyond network management for service provisioning and security.

4.11           ITU-T Study Group 9

ITU-T Study Group 4 (SG9)[10] prepares and maintains Recommendations on:

  • Use of cable and hybrid networks, primarily designed for television and sound programme delivery to the home, as integrated broadband networks to also carry voice or other time critical services, video on demand, interactive services, etc.
  • Use of telecommunication systems for contribution, primary distribution and secondary distribution of television, sound programmes and similar data services.

SG9 is ITU-T’s Lead Study Group on integrated broadband cable and television networks. Some examples of recent activities related to IP-based networks include:

  • “IPCablecom” project[11] specifies architecture and protocols for delivery of time-critical IP-based interactive services over cable television networks;
  • J.122, J.112, and J.83 Recommendations define  provisioning of IP-based services over cable networks using cable modems;
  • J.120, defining a transmission protocol and configuration for distribution of sound and television programs (webcasting) over IP networks.

A description of cable modems and the related ITU-T Recommendations is given in Chapter Seven: Case Study—How ITU’s Broadband Standards Improve Access to the Internet.

4.12           ITU-T Study Group 11

ITU-T Study Group 11 (SG11)[12] is responsible for studies relating to:

  • signalling requirements and protocols for Internet Protocol (IP) related functions, some mobility related functions, multimedia functions and enhancements to existing Recommendations on access and internetwork signalling protocols of ATM, N-ISDN and PSTN.

SG11 is the Lead Study Group on intelligent networks. Some examples of recent activities related to IP-based networks include:

  • Standardized signalling for IP and advanced network applications, Intelligent Networks (“IN”);
  • Signalling support of mobility services (e.g., IMT-2000);
  • IP related signalling (e.g., bearer independent call control (BICC: Q.1901);
  • Signalling transport over IP and Interactions between IN and IP-based networks;
  • Use of SIP for user access and network-to-network interfacing;
  • Interworking between Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Bearer Independent Call Control Protocol or ISDN User Part.

4.13           ITU-T Study Group 12

ITU-T Study Group 12 (SG12)[13] is responsible for:

  • Guidance on the end-to-end transmission performance of networks, terminals and their interactions, in relation to the perceived quality and acceptance by users of text, speech, and image applications. This work includes the related transmission implications of all networks (e.g., those based on PDH, SDH, ATM and IP) and all telecommunications terminals (e.g., handset, hands-free, headset, mobile, audiovisual, and interactive voice response).

SG12 is the ITU-T Lead Study Group on Quality of Service and performance.

  • As Lead ITU-T Study Group on Quality-of-Service (QoS) and Performance, Study Group 12 provides leadership for the ITU-T in dealing with QOS-related issues. Internal to the ITU-T, this leadership involves providing a roadmap for QOS activities that can be used to identify and resolve QoS-related issues across Study Groups. External to the ITU-T, this leadership involves active communication with other organisations, with a goal of improving the visibility of ITU-T expertise in QoS and more effectively leveraging this expertise in specifications being developed elsewhere in the industry.

Some examples of recent activities related to IP-based networks include:

  • End-to-end transmission performance of networks;
  • Transmission requirements for IP gateways and terminals;
  • Voiceband services via IP networks;
  • Perceptual appreciation of quality of speech;
  • QoS issues related to IP networks (e.g. G.1010);
  • Multimedia QoS/performance;
  • In-service non-intrusive assessment of VoIP.

4.14           ITU-T Study Group 13

ITU-T Study Group 13 (SG13)[14] is responsible for studies relating to:

  • Internetworking of heterogeneous networks encompassing multiple domains, multiple protocols and innovative technologies with a goal to deliver high-quality, reliable networking. Specific aspects are architecture, interworking and adaptation, end-to-end considerations, routing and requirements for transport.

The mission of Study Group 13 is:[15]

  • To provide a focal point in ITU for technology-independent network architecture and long-term evolution studies, including IPnetwork studies, through development of the necessary frameworks and architectures, coordination with the various related studies in the other ITU study groups and collaboration with other standards bodies.
  • To help ITU-T continue to respond to the changes to studies and priorities necessary to integrate traditional telecommunication networks with IP-based networks in order to provide full integration of services and applications to end users. Also, to give network providers the tools and information to support the market-driven changes to the telecommunication industry.
  • To conduct IP-related studies focusing on network architecture, network capabilities, network evolution, service and performance aspects, and access arrangements to achieve interoperability in the multi-vendor and multi-network-operator environments. These studies will be performed in cooperation with other study groups and other standards bodies. Particular areas of study key to this evolution are IP-based network architectures, IP-based network performance, IP transfer  capabilities, IP-VPN (virtual private network) services, IP-based network resource management and access arrangements.
  • To conduct the remaining studies in the area of B-ISDN resource management, performance and the ATM Layer and its adaptation and interworking.
  • To encourage harmonization of IP-related and GII studies across the ITU-T study groups through the evolution and further development of the ITU-T IP and GII projects.
  • To collaborate with other standardization bodies in identifying gaps in the standardization programmes concerning IP networking and to develop proposals and Recommendations to advance the necessary work.

SG13 is the ITU-T Lead Study Group for IP related matters, B-ISDN, Global Information Infrastructure and satellite matters. Some examples of recent activities related to IP-based networks include:

  • Y.801: Relationships among ISDN, Internet protocol, and GII performance recommendations;
  • Y.1001: IP Framework - A framework for convergence of telecommunications network and IP network technologies;
  • Y.1221: Traffic control and congestion control in IP-based network;
  • Y.1231: IP Access Network Architecture;
  • Y.1241: Support of IP-based services using IP transfer capabilities;
  • Y.1242: Circuit Multiplication Equipment optimized for IP-based networks;
  • Y.1261: Service requirements and architecture for voice services over Multi-Protocol Label Switching ;
  • Y.1281: Mobile IP over MPLS;
  • Y.1310:  Transport of IP over ATM in public networks;
  • Y.1311.1: Network-based IP VPN over MPLS architecture;
  • Y.1321: IP over SDH using LAPS;
  • Y.1401: General requirements for interworking with Internet protocol (IP)-based networks;
  • Y.1402: General arrangements for interworking between Public Data Networks and the Internet;
  • Y.1411: ATM-MPLS network interworking - Cell mode user plane interworking;
  • Y.1412: ATM-MPLS network interworking - Frame mode user plane interworking;
  • Y.1501: Relationships among ISDN, Internet protocol, and GII performance recommendations;
  • Y.1540: Internet protocol data communication service - IP packet transfer and availability performance parameters;
  • Y.1541: Network performance objectives for IP-based services;
  • Y.1560: Parameters for TCP connection performance in the presence of middleboxes;
  • Y.1704.2: Distributed Call and Connection Management: Signalling mechanism using GMPLS RSVP-TE;
  • Y.1704.3: Distributed Call and Connection Management: Signalling mechanisms using GMPLS CR-LDP;
  • Y.1710: Requirements for OAM functionality for MPLS networks;
  • Y.1711: Operation & Maintenance mechanism for MPLS networks;
  • Y.1712: OAM functionality for ATM-MPLS interworking;
  • Y.1713: Misbranching detection for MPLS networks;
  • Y.1720: Protection switching for MPLS networks;

4.15           ITU-T Study Group 15

ITU-T Study Group 15 (SG15)[16] is the focal point in ITU‑T for studies on optical and other transport networks, systems and equipment. This encompasses the development of transmission layer related standards for the access, metropolitan and long haul sections of communication networks.

Particular emphasis is given to global standards providing for a high-capacity (Terabit) optical transport network (OTN) infrastructure, and for high‑speed (multi‑Megabit) network access. This also includes related work on modelling for network management, technology‑specific transport network architectures and layer interworking. Special consideration is being given to the changing telecommunication environment towards IP‑type networks.

Topics covered include routing, switching, interfaces, multiplexers, cross-connect, add/drop multiplexers, amplifiers, repeaters, regenerators, network protection switching and restoration, gateway equipment, and network signal processing. Many of these topics are addressed for various transport technologies, such as metallic and optical fibre cables, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), optical transport network (OTN), synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH). In its work, Study Group 15 takes into account related activities in other ITU study groups, standards organizations, forums and consortia, and collaborate with them to avoid duplication of effort and identify any gaps in the development of global standards.

SG15 is the Lead Study Group on Access Network Transport and related to the Optical Networking technologies.

SG15 is extremely active in standardizing high-speed Internet access over copper wire loops using DSL technologies. A description of this technology and the related ITU-T Recommendations is given in Chapter Seven: Case Study—How ITU’s Broadband Standards Improve Access to the Internet.

SG15 is also active in standardizing optical access networks for delivery of broadband IP-based services, including fibre-to-the-home and SMEs, and optical transport of Internet packets such as IP over Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), and Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM).

4.16           ITU-T Study Group 16

ITU-T Study Group 16 (SG16)[17] is responsible for studies relating to multimedia service definition and multimedia systems, including the associated terminals (including facsimile terminals), modems, protocols and signal processing. SG16 is the Lead Study Group on multimedia services and systems (e.g. includes VoIP).

SG16 works on the following items:

  • definition of a framework and roadmaps for the harmonized and coordinated development of multimedia communication standardization to provide guidance across all ITU-T and ITU-R study groups, and in close cooperation with other regional and international SDOs and industry forums; these studies will include mobility, IP and interactive broadcasting aspects;
  • development and maintenance of a database of existing and planned multimedia standards;
  • definition of multimedia architectures;
  • operation of multimedia systems and services, including interoperability;
  • protocols for multimedia systems and services including facsimile communication;
  • media coding and signal processing;
  • multimedia terminals including facsimile terminals;
  • QoS and end-to-end performance in multimedia systems;
  • security of multimedia systems and services;
  • accessibility to multimedia systems and services;
  • e-commerce and e-business.

Some examples of SG16’s standardization work include:

  • standards for IP telephony (e.g., H.323 series);
  • modems (e.g., V.90, V.92);
  • audio and video codecs (e.g., G.723.1 and G.729 series, H.260 series);
  • H.248 “media-gateway” series for interworking between IP networks & PSTN;
  • H.264: advanced new video coding;
  • Emergency services;
  • Wideband voice codecs.

SG16 is responsible for the H.323 series of Recommendations. ITU-T H.323 is the world’s most widely deployed Voice over IP (VoIP) technology.

Box 4.2: ITU advanced video standard opens new opportunities

ITU has been working on technical specifications for combined Internet and mobile networks, such as ITU’s 3G IMT‑2000 initiative, for over a decade.

Currently there is a lot of interest in next-generation multimedia standards for streaming media, particularly for a new generation of advanced mobile devices. One of the most promising standards to emerge is the new high-performance video encoding/decoding standard ITU-T H.264: Advanced Video Coding for Generic Audiovisual Services, produced by ITU-T Study Group 16. H.264 is the result of work by the Joint Video Team (JVT) which combined the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG).

The new standard is likely to find use in a wide variety of applications from mobile phones to High Definition TV and is destined to revolutionize video picture quality over networks such as the Internet, 3G Wireless and the PSTN. The new standard uses significant less bandwidth for the same quality as MPEG-2 (e.g., as used on DVD players).

Earlier this year, the International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium (IMTC) advocated the approval of a royalty-free baseline profile for H.264 to "enable industry to bring an open, internationally standardized video codec to market quickly, without time-consuming and fractious licensing negotiations." There's also an open source H.264 project on SourceForge.net.

Further information can be found on the ITU website.[18]

4.17           ITU-T Study Group 17

ITU-T Study Group 17 (SG17)[19] takes the primary role for developing Recommendations in the following areas:

  • packet and frame relay, including interworking cases for data communications;
  • directory services and systems (F.500- and X.500-series);
  • security, including frameworks, mechanisms and protocols (X.800-series);
  • abstract syntax notation one (ASN.1) (X.680/X.690-series);
  • languages and description techniques (Z-series);

and for ongoing maintenance of Recommendations in the following areas:

  • open systems interconnection (OSI) (X.200-, X.600-series, etc.);
  • open distributed processing (ODP) (X.900-series).

In addition, SG17 is the ITU-T Lead Study Group for:

  • frame relay;
  • communication system security,
  • languages and description techniques.

Some examples of SG17’s ongoing or planned standardization work include:

  • X.509; reference standard for authentication services using asymmetric cryptography and Public Key Infrastructure (“PKI”) services, which is widely used in digital signature technologies and for E-commerce on IP-based networks;
  • X.85/Y.1321: IP over Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Networks;
  • New versions of frame relay standards offering improved support for IP networks;
  • X.842: Information technology - Security techniques - Guidelines on the use and management of trusted third party services;
  • X.843: Information technology - Security techniques - Specification of TTP services to support the application of digital signatures;
  • Security related activities with new work items started in:

o       Security management;

o       Telebiometrics;

o       Mobile security.

Over seventy ITU-T Recommendations focusing on security have been published, and the work includes studies on security from network attacks, theft or denial of service, theft of identity and security for emergency telecommunication. The ITU-T has recently released a manual on Security in Telecommunications and Information Technology which can be downloaded from the ITU website.[20] For an overview of SG17’s security activities, see: http://ww.itu.int/itu-t/studygroups/com17/cssecurity.html.

Immediately before the next World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA-04)[21] in Florianópolis, Brazil, from 5-14 October 2004. WTSA-04, the ITU-T will organize a one-day “Symposium on Cybersecurity".

4.18           Special Study Group IMT

This Study Group has the primary responsibility within ITU-T for overall network aspects of what are generally known as third-generation (3G) mobile systems developed under the aegis of ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications banner (IMT-2000). For a description of IMT-2000, see Section 2.3 3G Systems or IMT-2000). This Special Study Group IMT is responsible for:

·        Developing a work plan for ITU-T activities on IMT-2000 systems and beyond, to ensure that this work is progressed effectively and efficiently with organizations external to ITU and internally with ITU-R and ITU-D, as appropriate;

·        Providing a migration path regarding network aspects and mobility from existing IMT-2000 systems towards systems beyond IMT-2000;

·        Enhancing an overview roadmap (Supplement to ITU-T Q.1701) on network aspects and mobility of existing IMT-2000 systems specified by ITU-T and external organizations (e.g., Standards Development Organizations (SDOs), Partnership Projects (PPs), IETF, and relevant external forums, etc.);

·        Providing interworking functions as needed and if not provided by other organizations, to allow for global mobility between existing IMT-2000 systems specified by external organizations.

The second point above includes the development of a long term common IP-based network architecture as applicable to IMT-2000. The fourth point above, considering the ongoing evolutionary directions of network infrastructure, includes near term IP-based internetworking.

In addition, this Special Study Group will study:

  • Harmonization of different IMT-2000 Family member standards as they evolve beyond IMT-2000 as much as possible in cooperation with relevant bodies.
  • Evolution of network aspects of IMT-2000 from the existing fixed network by utilizing the IMT-2000 radio transmission technologies as fixed wireless access.
  • Network aspects of the convergence of fixed and wireless networks and ultimately migration to interoperable and harmonized network architectures to provide services transparently to users across different access arrangements.
  • Assessment of the need for, and standardization of, IMT-2000 interfaces to provide multi-vendor advantages for operators, if not provided by external organizations.

This Special Study Group is the Lead Study Group for “IMT-2000 and Beyond” and for mobility within ITU-T, and collaborates with ITU-R Working Party 8F on the radio aspects of the terrestrial elements, and with ITU-R Working Party 8D for satellite elements.

4.19           MoU on Electronic Business

The ITU-T is also party to a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Electronic Business with the Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), which specifies a framework of cooperation and collaboration between international standardization organizations in the field of electronic business. For example, the group is active in standards work related to XML and E-business.


      


[11] See http://www.itu.int/itudoc/itu-t/com9/ipcable/ipcable_ww9.doc for a description and status of related Recommendations.

 

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