Revised Report by the Secretary-General

Policy and Regulatory Issues Raised by
Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)


Introduction

Part I - Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite

Part II - Overview of Policy and Regulatory Issues Raised by GMPCS

Part III - Draft Opinions Concerning GMPCS

Annexes


Introduction

1. The ITU World Telecommunication Policy Forum (WTPF) was established by Res. 2 of the Kyoto Plenipotentiary Conference. Its terms of reference include the following provisions:

2. By Resolution 1083, the 1995 session of the ITU Council decided to convene the first WTPF in Geneva from 21-23 October 1996, immediately after the World Telecommunication Standardization Conference, to discuss the theme 'Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite' with the following agenda;

"To discuss and exchange views and information on the following policy and regulatory issues raised by the introduction of global mobile personal communications systems and services by satellite:

and to draw up a report, and if possible opinions, for consideration by the Members and relevant ITU meetings."

3. In accordance with Resolution 1083, this report has been prepared to serve as the sole document of the Forum, using the following procedure.

4. In addition to this report, it is anticipated that the following ITU documents, publications and meetings may assist the membership in preparing for the WTPF:

5. The report has been organized into the following three Parts so that it corresponds to the proposed structure and timetable of the Policy Forum and the associated GMPCS information session which will take place the day before the forum begins. The relationship between the structure of the WTPF, the items on its agenda, and the organization of this report is displayed in Table A as follows:

TABLE A - Proposed Forum Structure and Timetable
(Proposed working hours: 09:00 - 12:00 and 14:00 - 17:00)

WTPF Session

Timing

Agenda

Related Part of this Report

Pre-WTPF Information Session 20 October Information on GMPCS I. Overview of GMPCS
Sessions 1 and 2 21 October
  • Inauguration of the Forum
  • Adoption of Rules of Procedure
  • Presentation of Secretary-General's report
  • Keynote presentations on policy and regulatory issues raised by GMPCS
  • General discussion of policy and regulatory issues raised by GMPCS
  • II. Overview of Policy and Regulatory Issues Raised by GMPCS
    Sessions 3 and 4 22 October Consideration of draft opinions on GMPCS III. Draft Opinions Concerning GMPCS
    Sessions 5 and 6 23 October
  • Adoption of Forum Report and Opinions
  • Closure of the Forum
  • Part I Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)


    6. As stated in paragraph 2 above, in accordance with Kyoto Resolution 2, the 1995 ITU Council decided that the policy and regulatory issues raised by the introduction of "global mobile personal communications systems and services by satellite", or GMPCS, would be the theme of the first WTPF.

    7. The acronym "GMPCS" was first used in the reports of the Third ITU Regulatory Colloquium to refer to mobile satellite systems operating in non-geostationary orbits and offering voice communications and other narrow-band services on a global basis using frequencies above 1 GHz. Systems of this kind are popularly known as "Big LEOs", even though not all of them use satellites in low earth orbits.

    8. Several contributions have recommended that the scope of the Policy Forum should be broadened to include all systems providing telecommunication services directly to end-users from a constellation of satellites on a trans-national, regional or global basis. This recommendation is based on the recognition that similar policy and regulatory issues are raised by all such systems.

    9. From this perspective, the Policy Forum would consider a common set of policy and regulatory issues raised by the following kinds of satellite systems:

    10. In spite of their different technical characteristics and different service offerings (i.e. fixed vs. mobile, narrowband vs. broadband), all these systems share certain characteristics that distinguish them from traditional intergovernmental organizations providing satellite services and give rise to essentially similar policy and regulatory issues with respect to the items on the WTPF agenda. These are summarized in Table B.

    11. To provide a comprehensive basis for discussion of the policy and regulatory issues raised by GMPCS, it is recommended that the Policy Forum consider GMPCS in the broader view outlined in Section 9.

    TABLE B
    A Summary of GMPCS Characteristics

    Topics

    GMPCS Characteristics

    Fundamental Issues for the WTPF

    Policy and regulatory authority National policy and regulatory bodies How to coordinate actions of national policy makers and regulators in order to facilitate the development and deployment of GMPCS?
    Participation
    • Broad base of investments through international consortia
    • Ownership from both developed and developing countries
    • Primarily private, but also includes government-owned operating entities
    How to ensure that interests of developing countries are taken fully into account in the development of GMPCS systems and services?
    Terminals
    • Lightweight
    • Small (hand-held or portable)
    • Inexpensive and generally owned by the end user
    How to facilitate the use of GMPCS terminals on a trans-national basis?
    Service provision
    • Competitive
    • Trans-national markets
    • Primarily retail direct to end-users
    How to create open, fair, competitive markets for GMPCS services on a national and trans-national basis?

    Part II Overview of Policy and Regulatory Issues Raised by GMPCS


    A. The Globalization of Telecommunication Services Resulting from GMPCS and the Scope for International Cooperation in this Context

    12. Contributions to the Policy Forum have stressed the many benefits that will result from the globalization of telecommunication services through GMPCS benefits which in many cases are already being provided by existing mobile satellite systems.

    13. At the same time, some contributions have expressed concerns about the possible impact of GMPCS on national sovereignty and on national telecommunication operators. These concerns have been expressed mainly by developing countries and will be discussed in more detail in the following section of this report.

    14. There is general agreement in contributions to the WTPF that cooperation both at the international and regional levels is needed to facilitate the development and deployment of GMPCS so as to ensure that the benefits of GMPCS are maximized, while at the same time taking into account the sovereign rights of countries. It is further agreed that this cooperative course of action should:

    15. In order to capture this shared vision, it has been proposed that one of the outputs of the Policy Forum should be an Opinion along the lines of Draft Opinion No. 1

    16. In order to provide a foundation for international cooperation in the development and deployment of GMPCS, a number of contributions proposed that the Policy Forum should adopt a set of voluntary principles which could guide national regulators and be applied at their discretion as they seek to develop GMPCS policies and regulations for application within their national jurisdictions (hereinafter "voluntary principles"). These principles would not affect the sovereign right of States to regulate their telecommunication, since they would neither be prescriptive nor have binding force.

    17. Some of the principles which have been proposed in members' contributions are general and would apply to all of the items on the WTPF agenda. Others would apply more specifically to the scope for international cooperation on GMPCS, to the situation of developing countries, and to the licensing and regulation of GMPCS services and terminals.

    18. It has been proposed that one of the outputs of the Policy Forum should be an Opinion embodying these voluntary principles, along the lines of Draft Opinion No. 2

    19. It has also been suggested that at least some governments might want to give more formal expression to some or all of these principles by entering into a memorandum of understanding or mutual recognition group agreement.

    20. Many contributions to the Policy Forum made reference to the important role that the ITU Radiocommunication, Standardization and Development Sectors are already playing in facilitating international cooperation in the development of GMPCS. In addition to noting the importance of pursuing work which is already underway, some contributions proposed that the ITU undertake new activities to assist in the deployment of GMPCS systems.

    21. It has been proposed that one of the outputs of the Policy Forum should be an Opinion on the current activities of and the essential tasks that must be undertaken by the ITU in the introduction of GMPCS, along the lines of Draft Opinion No. 3

    22. In light of these proposals, in relation to this issue, the Policy Forum may wish to consider adopting Opinions which embody:

    B. The Role of GMPCS Systems in the Provision of Basic Telecommunication Services in Developing Countries, LDCs and in Rural and Remote Areas

    23. Many contributions to the Policy Forum drew attention to the very important role that GMPCS could play in developing countries, LDCs and in rural and remote areas by:

    24. Some contributions also drew attention to a number of issues which are of particular concern to some developing countries.

    25. On the basis of the contributions received and the results of regional preparatory meetings, it does not appear that the concerns of developing countries with respect to GMPCS require a special set of voluntary principles to guide national policy-makers and regulators in these countries, that would be different from those applied in developed countries. However, a number of contributions proposed that within the framework of these general principles, the circumstances of some developing countries (e.g. weak telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory structures and economies) require approaches to GMPCS service provision that are tailored to meet the needs of these countries, and that it is in the interest of policy-makers and regulators in these countries to develop these approaches in cooperation with GMPCS system operators and service providers. The Draft Opinions presented in Part III of this report attempt to take account of these concerns, particularly as they were expressed in the reports of regional preparatory meetings.

    26. Contributions have also suggested that regional telecommunication organizations could support the implementation of GMPCS by:

    27. In addition to these cooperative courses of action, contributions to the Policy Forum have identified actions that should be taken by meetings and programmes of the ITU's Telecommunication Development Sector to assist developing countries, particularly the LDCs. These actions include:

    28. In relation to this issue), it is therefore recommended that the Policy Forum consider adopting Draft Opinion Nos. 2, 3 and 5

    C. Measures Necessary to Achieve Transborder Use of GMPCS Terminals

    29. This topic was very extensively discussed in contributions to the Policy Forum.

    30. Contributions to the Policy Forum identified a number of impediments to the transborder use of GMPCS terminals from these two points of view, and proposed actions which could be taken to improve the situation in the interests of both GMPCS operators and national regulators. These include:

    31. The majority of contributions to the Policy Forum expressed the view that (except for normal interconnect and service charges) tariffs, custom duties, and licensing fees should be minimized, or even eliminated, in order to reduce impediments to transborder use and to enhance the early introduction of GMPCS.

    32. To deal with these issues, it has been proposed that the Secretary-General convene an informal group of experts drawn from Administrations, operators and other interested parties to initiate action leading to a framework of agreements on the free circulation of GMPCS terminals, covering such matters as type approval, licensing, marking and customs arrangements, along the lines of Draft Opinion No. 4

    33. Contributions to the Policy Forum also noted that there is already a considerable amount of work underway in the ITU Radiocommunication and Standardization Sectors that is related to these issues. In addition, some contributions proposed the possibility of a new role for the ITU as the international registry of GMPCS type approvals and mutual recognition agreements.

    34. In relation to this issue, it is therefore recommended that the Policy Forum consider adopting Draft Opinion Nos. 2 and 4

    D. Policy and Regulatory Issues Relevant to GMPCS Systems and Services, in Particular those Related to Interconnection, with a View to Achieving Equitable and Standard Conditions of Access

    35. There has been considerable discussion of this agenda item, not only in contributions to the Policy Forum, but in other fora such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). In addition to this report, participants may find it worthwhile to consult the following reference sources:

    36. As in the case of the previous agenda item, there are different points of view on the main issues related to the licensing and regulation of GMPCS systems and services.

    37. From the point of view of GMPCS system operators and service providers, dealing with the fact that each national jurisdiction has its own set of policies and regulations regarding such matters as the licensing of systems, gateways, and services, and interconnection with the public telecommunications network, represents an important part of the cost of doing business and a substantial element of risk. In their contributions, GMPCS system operators, service providers and terminal suppliers have indicated the following:

    38. Some regulators, particularly from developed countries, appear ready to endorse the regulatory policies outlined in the previous section, provided they are accommodated through a "non-prescriptive, non-binding" course of cooperative action. In their contributions to the Policy Forum, they have proposed that this could be done through the voluntary adoption by national policy-makers and regulators of a common set of principles covering matters such as:

    39. Other regulators, particularly from developing countries, have expressed reservations about a fully open, competitive approach to the introduction of GMPCS in their jurisdictions.

    40. In response to these concerns, some contributions suggested that it would be good business practice for GMPCS operators, service providers and terminal equipment suppliers to engage policy makers and regulators in discussions to learn about the varying policy and regulatory conditions prevailing in different countries and to offer constructive proposals as to how these conditions can be addressed when introducing GMPCS in each country.

    41. Taking these different perspectives into account, some regulators from both developed and developing countries expressed the view that whilst the unique features of GMPCS require increased international and regional cooperation, it was likely that GMPCS would be licensed in their countries within existing or planned frameworks, e.g. for cellular or international services. Following from regulators' obligation to ensure equal treatment of all service providers, they were of the view that GMPCS should be regulated in the same way as other comparable services.

    42. In responding to the different points of view on this agenda item that have been expressed in contributions to the WTPF, the fundamental challenge facing Policy Forum participants will be to identify a set of voluntary principles which strike an appropriate balance between

    43. As well as identifying the need for such a set of voluntary principles related to the licensing and regulation of GMPCS systems and services, contributions to the Policy Forum have drawn attention to a number of activities underway in the ITU Standardization Sector which will facilitate the actions of national regulators in this regard. These activities include work on:

    44. In relation to this issue, it is therefore recommended that the Policy Forum consider adopting Draft Opinion Nos. 2, 3 and 5

    Part III Draft Opinions Concerning GMPCS


    The draft opinions presented in this part of the report have been prepared with the assistance of an informal group of experts, each of whom has been involved in preparations for the Policy Forum in his or her own country and region. Collectively, this group represents a broad cross-section of ITU Member States from both developed and developing countries and different regions of the world.

    The draft opinions prepared by this group represent a 'best effort' to harmonize and synthesize the contributions of ITU State Members and Sector Members to the Policy Forum in a form which is at once compact, comprehensive and manageable within the limited time available to the forum.

    Draft Opinion No.

    Title

    1

    The Globalization of Telecommunication Services and Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)

    2

    The Shared Vision and Principles for Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)

    3

    Essential Studies by the ITU to Facilitate the Introduction of Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)

    4

    Establishment of a Memorandum of Understanding to Facilitate the Free Circulation of Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite User Terminals (GMPCS-MoU)

    5

    Advice to Developing Countries on the Implementation of GMPCS



    DRAFT OPINION No. 1

    The Globalization of Telecommunication Services and
    Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)

    The First World Telecommunication Policy Forum (Geneva 1996)

    considering

    that, pursuant to the basic provisions of the Constitution of the ITU, the purposes of the Union include:

    recognizing

    recognizing further

    conscious

    conscious further

    is of the view

    1. that globalization of telecommunication services will continue and will benefit the user;
    2. that early implementation of GMPCS systems would offer the potential for further telecommunications development for all countries;
    3. that, from the practical point of view, the current GMPCS system designs and service features will be those that will be available in the near future;

    invites

    1. national regulatory authorities, system developers and potential users to work cooperatively within the ITU to facilitate the early introduction of GMPCS;
    2. the Secretary­General, subject to the availability of funds, to provide periodic information reports to the membership regarding the introduction and operation of these new GMPCS systems.


    DRAFT OPINION No. 2


    The Shared Vision and Principles for
    Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)

    The First World Telecommunication Policy Forum (Geneva, 1996),

    recognizing

    conscious

    that these benefits would be achieved at the earliest opportunity through international cooperation, including through the ITU, in facilitating the early introduction of GMPCS;

    recognizing further

    believing

    that timely action by national regulatory authorities in licensing GMPCS systems will go far to promote the global availability of GMPCS,

    believing also

    that the availability of voluntary principles will be of great assistance to national regulatory authorities in the discharge of their responsibilities;

    declares

    its shared vision that the benefits of GMPCS be made available on a truly global basis,

    fully aware

    offers

    a set of voluntary principles for national regulators to consider in making their decisions about the introduction of the GMPCS service in their countries, as follows:

    Principle 1 Early Introduction

    In exercizing their sovereign rights, States may, in the context of their national priorities, wish to facilitate the early introduction of GMPCS services, in order to allow people everywhere to share in its benefits.

    Principle 2 International Cooperation

    The early introduction of GMPCS and the full realization of its benefits is likely to be facilitated if national policy­makers and regulators, in developing their domestic policies, cooperate to achieve compatibility of such policies to this effect:

    Principle 3 Global Service Availability

    The potential of GMPCS to provide services to all areas of the world, including those currently without access to even the most basic telecommunications, is most likely to be realized by simplified regulations and practices. To this effect:

    Principle 4 GMPCS Regulation

    National regulators should, in a timely manner, consider the benefits of creating a simplified, non-discriminatory and transparent regulatory environment, particularly with respect to such matters as service license, gateway station authorization, interconnection arrangements and user terminals, in which GMPCS services are regulated only to the extent necessary and can be provided under commercially reasonable conditions which:

    Principle 5 Investment Participation

    Opportunities for wide multinational participation in the equity ownership of GMPCS systems and services should be encouraged, so that GMPCS development is accelerated through global cooperation and partnership.

    Principle 6 Unauthorized Use

    Each system operator should take steps to inhibit the use of the system in any country which has not authorized GMPCS service.

    Principle 7 User Terminals and Free Circulation

    User equipment, including handsets, should be nationally approved on the basis of standards specific to each system and such other relevant international or regional standards, and licensed through general approvals of equipment types. International arrangements, (bilateral or where appropriate multilateral) should be developed to achieve compatibility in terminal approvals, facilitate unrestricted international circulation of terminals, and encourage global roaming.

    Principle 8 Universal Access

    The global or near global character of GMPCS should permit the provision of basic telecommunication services particularly in those rural and remote areas which may not be reached in an economical way by other means. This is of particular interest to developing countries and may be achieved through:

    Principle 9 Interconnectivity

    National regulators and GMPCS operators should cooperate in ensuring interconnectivity between GMPCS systems and between these systems and public networks in order to enhance the availability, quality, and profitability of their services and to facilitate the provision of universal service, as well as competition among GMPCS systems and service providers.

    invites

    1. 1. national regulatory authorities to take these principles into account when licensing GMPCS operators and providing for GMPCS in their respective countries;
    2. 2. GMPCS system operators and service providers to take these principles into account in operating their systems.


    DRAFT OPINION No. 3

    Essential Studies by ITU to Facilitate
    the Introduction of Global Mobile Personal
    Communications by Satellite (GMPCS)

    The First World Telecommunication Policy Forum (Geneva, 1996)

    recognizing

    invites the three ITU Sectors

    each for matters within its competence, to initiate new studies or pursue the current ones, and reach conclusions as soon as practicable, to facilitate the introduction of GMPCS on a global basis, particularly with respect to:

    urges members of the Sectors concerned

    to place special priority on their contributions to ITU activities relating to GMPCS in order for the ITU to be able to provide its essential expertise towards the rapid implementation of GMPCS on a global basis.


    DRAFT OPINION No. 4


    Establishment of a Memorandum of Understanding
    to Facilitate the Free Circulation of
    Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite User Terminals
    (GMPCS-MoU)

    The First World Telecommunication Policy Forum (Geneva, 1996),

    considering

    considering also

    considering further

    offers

    the draft GMPCS-MoU annexed to this Opinion for comment without commitment;

    requests the Secretary General

    1. to circulate the annexed draft GMPCS-MoU to Administrations, GMPCS operators, service providers, manufacturers, and members of the ITU Sectors, with an invitation to comment by [22 November 1996];
    2. to convene during [25 to 27 November 1996] an "informal group" of Administrations, GMPCS operators, service providers, and manufacturers to consider the comments received and finalize the GMPCS-MoU;
    3. to circulate the finalized GMPCS-MoU to Administrations, GMPCS operators, service providers, manufacturers, and members of the ITU Sectors, with an invitation to sign;
    4. to host the first meeting of the signatories to the GMPCS-MoU, in early 1997, in order to begin work on agreements relating to free circulation of terminals as specified in the Articles of the MoU;

    encourages

    Administrations, GMPCS operators, service providers and manufacturers to sign the MoU, and participate actively it its work, with a view to completing the initial set of agreements by 1 July 1997.


    Annex to draft Opinion N° 4

    Draft Memorandum of Understanding to Facilitate the Free Circulation of Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite User Terminals (GMPCS-MoU)

    Convinced of the need to reach regional, or preferably global, agreements on issues related to the three levels of free circulation of user terminals defined as follows:

    that such agreements would necessarily include the conditions pursuant to which Administrations would grant mutual recognition of type approval of terminals, mutual recognition of terminal licensing, recognize the marking of terminals, and permit terminals to be placed on the market; and that such agreements could form the basis of national regulations on these matters, or be implemented by reference;

    the Parties to this Memorandum of Understanding hereby agree to cooperate, according to their respective roles and competencies on the following issues:

    Article 1 Type Approval of Terminals

    The Parties shall develop agreements on the essential requirements necessary for the type approval of terminals, and the means by which such approvals shall be mutually recognized. That the type approval standards should be based on the relevant ITU-R Recommendations, and should be impartial with respect to all GMPCS technologies, and without reference to performance or quality of service standards.


    Article 2 Licensing of Terminals

    The Parties shall develop agreements on the means by which terminals shall be licensed. That such licensing shall be based on class licenses or blanket approvals. That the agreements shall include the means by which these licenses shall be mutually recognized.

    Article 3 Marking of Terminals

    The Parties shall develop agreements on the marking of terminals which will permit their recognition and the implementation of the agreements on mutual recognition of type approval and licensing.

    Article 4 Customs Arrangements

    The Parties shall develop recommendations in order to exempt terminals from customs restrictions when visiting or transiting countries.

    Article 5 Review

    The Parties shall periodically review the results and consequences of their cooperation under this Memorandum of Understanding. When appropriate the Parties will consider the need for improvements in their cooperation and make suitable proposals for modifying and updating the agreements.

    Done in Geneva:

    [date]

    signed:



    DRAFT OPINION No. 5

    Advice to Developing Countries on the Implementation
    of GMPCS

    The First World Telecommunication Policy Forum (Geneva, 1996)

    recognizing

    that GMPCS systems offer significant benefits to the public both in the developing and developed countries;

    recognizing further

    that while the benefits and potential of GMPCS have not been challenged, nevertheless some countries may have concerns about the political, economic, social and cultural impacts of the emerging new systems;

    considering

    considering further

    conscious

    of the view

    urges

    invites the Director of the BDT, in liaison with the Directors of the other Bureaux

    to make arrangements for experts from the three Sectors, especially from developing countries, to provide, in liaison with the relevant Study Groups, advice and assistance in reponse to the concerns and needs of developing countries on the technical, regulatory and operational issues associated with the introduction of GMPCS on a global or regional basis, particularly in relation to tariffs and interconnectivity;

    urges

    developing countries to communicate their concerns and needs to these experts.


    ANNEXES

    The following annexes summarize proposals made in Members' contributions elaborating on the voluntary principles listed in Draft Opinion No. 2, as well as with respect to areas where action by relevant ITU meetings could facilitate the development and introduction of GMPCS.

    This material is presented as background information for Policy Forum participants.


    ANNEX A

    The Globalization of Telecommunication Services Resulting from GMPCS and the Scope for International Cooperation in this Context

    Subsidiary Voluntary Principles to Facilitate the Development and Early Introduction of GMPCS Areas Where Action by Relevant ITU Meetings Will Facilitate the Introduction of GMPCS
    Voluntary Principles Benefits to National Regulators, GMPCS Operators, Service Providers and Users
  • Recognizing the sovereign right of national authorities to regulate their telecommunications, regulatory policies should be developed so as to foster international cooperation and compatibility with respect to those policies and thus facilitate timely deployment of GMPCS and full realization of the economic and social benefits.
  • Prior agreement with the government regarding the provision of services within and with each individual country using a GMPCS space segment recognizes the sovereign rights of countries, assures that the provision of service in each country is lawful, and fosters a cooperative business environment
  • International cooperation and compatibility of regulatory policies will help minimize the delays and inefficiencies that would result from multiple country space segment licensing.
  • Spectrum allocation, coordination procedures, and sharing studies
  • Numbering
  • When licensing GMPCS space segment or gateway operators, effective participation by foreign investors in the equity of the system should be permitted, rather than limiting such participation to nationals
  • Opportunities for equity participation that are widely available to foreign investors enhances early implementation of GMPCS and offers broadbased economic benefits.
  • The question of national ownership participation in gateway stations will be most efficiently resolved if it is left to commercial decision-making by GMPCS operators and their local partners.

  • ANNEX B

    The Role of GMPCS Systems in the Provision of Basic Telecommunication Services in Developing Countries, in LDCs and in Rural and Remote Areas

    Subsidiary Voluntary Principles to Facilitate the Development and Early Introduction of GMPCS Areas Where Action by Relevant ITU Meetings Will Facilitate the Introduction of GMPCS
    Voluntary Principles Benefits to National Regulators, GMPCS Operators, Service Providers and Users
  • As a complement to national services, developing countries should consider global, regional or sub-regional approaches to the introduction of GMPCS that involve the participation of developing countries and take into account their specific needs
  • In order to make GMPCS services viable and affordable in rural and remote areas, gateway operators and others involved in the provision of such service should consider offering preferential transit tariffs to such areas in developing countries and LDCs
  • GMPCS system operators should provide some capacity at preferential affordable tariffs to extend services to areas lacking conventional infrastructure in developing countries and LDCs
  • Developing countries should participate in the standardization of GMPCS terminals to ensure that they are affordable and interwork with terrestrial cellular systems.
  • Service packages that take into account the requirements of developing countries will improve the potential benefits and marketability of GMPCS systems
  • The involvement of local business partners and service providers should assist in the early introduction of GMPCS services and enhance their benefits
  • The identification of the key components of GMPCS licensing agreements in terms of the requirements of developing country regulators, GMPCS system operators and service providers should expedite the early approval of such systems.
  • Provision of information for developing countries on GMPCS systems and services
  • Convening of information seminars and meetings to aid in understanding the benefits and implications for developing countries of the early introduction of GMPCS
  • Work in ITU-D study groups on policy, regulatory, network planning, and economic issues related to the impact of the introduction of GMPCS in developing countries

  • ANNEX C

    Measures Necessary to Achieve Transborder Use of
    GMPCS Terminals

    Subsidiary Voluntary Principles to Facilitate the Development and Early Introduction of GMPCS Areas Where Action by Relevant ITU Meetings Will Facilitate the Introduction of GMPCS
    Voluntary Principles Benefits to National Regulators, GMPCS Operators, Service Providers and Users
  • User equipment, including handsets, should be type approved by national authorities on the basis of relevant international standards, or regional standards if international standards are not available, and licensed on the basis of type approvals ("blanket licenses" ) rather than through individual licenses for each and every one of the terminals that will be used by GMPCS customers.
  • Conformity of GMPCS terminals with relevant ITU Recommendations should facilitate type approval and licensing by national authorities, enhance competition in the provision of terminal equipment, simplify the introduction of cross-border and global roaming capabilities, and enhance local revenue growth for equipment and service providers.
  • Standards relating to interference and network access
  • Some contributions also foresaw the possibility that the ITU could become the international registry for type approval/mutual recognition agreements.
  • National authorities should endeavour through appropriate international arrangements (bilateral or where appropriate multilateral) to achieve compatibility and mutual recognition in their terminal approvals in order to facilitate unrestricted international circulation of terminals.
  • National authorities should encourage global roaming and transborder use of GMPCS terminals by adopting specific regulatory measures where necessary to facilitate it.

  • ANNEX D

    Policy and Regulatory Issues Relevant to GMPCS Systems and Services, in Particular those Related to Interconnection, with a View to Achieving Equitable and Standard Conditions of Access

    Subsidiary Voluntary Principles to Facilitate the Development and Early Introduction of GMPCS Areas Where Action by Relevant ITU Meetings Will Facilitate the Introduction of GMPCS
    Voluntary Principles Benefits to National Regulators, GMPCS Operators, Service Providers and Users
  • In exercising their sovereign rights, national policy-makers should consider the benefits of avoiding the exclusion of GMPCS systems from their market and seek to maximize competition in the provision of GMPCS services, within the limits of spectrum availability and the framework of their national telecommunications policy.
  • In line with these principles, the early licensing and introduction of GMPCS services will be facilitated if:
  • any discrimination among different countries or categories of users is avoided by GMPCS system operators and service providers, except where this is sufficiently justified by specific technical or economic considerations or constraints;
  • Standardization aspects of interconnection, network access, and network service quality
  • Tariffing principles and methodologies for international telecommunication services
  • GMPCS systems, services and facilities should only be regulated to the extent necessary to achieve national policy goals.
  • anti-competitive business practices are avoided during and after the introduction of GMPCS services;
  • National regulatory policies should be independent, open and transparent.
  • relevant GMPCS information required by national authorities to carry out their licensing and regulatory functions are disclosed in a timely fashion;
  • Interconnection and access by GMPCS system operators and service providers to terrestrial facilities and public networks should be provided on a fair, commercially reasonable and non-discriminatory basis.
  • international standards and practices for interconnection and network access are taken into account by national regulators and GMPCS system operators and service providers.