29. We reaffirm the principles
enunciated in the Geneva phase of the WSIS, in December 2003, that the Internet
has evolved into a global facility available to the public and its governance
should constitute a core issue of the Information Society agenda. The
international management of the Internet should be multilateral, transparent and
democratic, with the full involvement of governments, the private sector, civil
society and international organizations. It should ensure an equitable
distribution of resources, facilitate access for all and ensure a stable and
secure functioning of the Internet, taking into account multilingualism.
30. We acknowledge that the
Internet, a central element of the infrastructure of the Information Society,
has evolved from a research and academic facility into a global facility
available to the public.
31. We recognize that Internet
governance, carried out according to the Geneva principles, is an essential
element for a people-centred, inclusive, development-oriented and non-discriminatory Information Society. Furthermore,
we commit ourselves to the
stability and security of the Internet as a global facility and to ensuring the
requisite legitimacy of its governance, based on the full participation of all
stakeholders, from both developed and developing countries, within their
respective roles and responsibilities.
32. We thank the UN
Secretary-General for establishing the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG).
We commend the chairman, members and secretariat for their work and for their
33. We take note of the WGIG
report that has endeavoured to develop a working definition of Internet
governance. It has helped identify a number of public policy issues that are
relevant to Internet governance. The report has also enhanced our understanding
of the respective roles and responsibilities of governments, intergovernmental
and international organizations and other forums as well as the private sector
and civil society from both developing and developed countries.
34. A working definition of
Internet governance is the development and application by governments, the
private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared
principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape
the evolution and use of the Internet.
35. We reaffirm that the
management of the Internet encompasses both technical and public policy issues
and should involve all stakeholders and relevant intergovernmental and
international organizations. In this respect, it is recognized that:
a) Policy authority
for Internet-related public policy issues is the sovereign right of States. They
have rights and responsibilities for international Internet-related public
b) The private sector
has had, and should continue to have, an important role in the Agenda for the
Information Society development of the Internet, both in the technical and
c) Civil society has also played
an important role on Internet matters, especially at community level, and should
continue to play such a role.
d) Intergovernmental organizations have had, and should continue to have, a facilitating role
in the coordination of Internet-related public policy issues.
e) International organizations
have also had, and should continue to have, an important role in the
development of Internet-related technical standards and relevant policies.
36. We recognize the valuable
contribution by the academic and technical communities within those stakeholder
groups mentioned in paragraph 35 to the evolution, functioning and
development of the Internet.
37. We seek to improve the
coordination of the activities of international and intergovernmental
organizations and other institutions concerned with Internet governance and the
exchange of information among themselves. A multi-stakeholder approach should be
adopted, as far as possible, at all levels.
38. We call for the reinforcement
of specialized regional Internet resource management institutions to guarantee
the national interest and rights of countries in that particular region to
manage its own Internet resources, while maintaining global coordination in this
39. We seek to build confidence
and security in the use of ICTs by strengthening the trust framework. We
reaffirm the necessity to further promote, develop and implement in cooperation
with all stakeholders a global culture of cybersecurity, as outlined in UNGA
Resolution 57/239 and other relevant regional frameworks. This culture
requires national action and increased international cooperation to strengthen
security while enhancing the protection of personal information, privacy and
data. Continued development of the culture of cybersecurity should enhance
access and trade and must take into account the level of social and economic
development of each country and respect the development-oriented aspects of the
40. We underline the importance
of the prosecution of cybercrime, including cybercrime committed in one
jurisdiction, but having effects in another. We further underline the necessity of effective and efficient tools and actions, at national and
international levels, to promote international cooperation among, inter alia,
law-enforcement agencies on cybercrime. We call upon governments in cooperation
with other stakeholders to develop necessary legislation for the investigation
and prosecution of cybercrime, noting existing frameworks, for example, UNGA
Resolutions 55/63 and 56/121 on Combating the criminal misuse of
information technologies and regional initiatives including, but not limited
to, the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime.
41. We resolve to deal
effectively with the significant and growing problem posed by spam. We take note
of current multilateral, multi-stakeholder frameworks for regional and
international cooperation on spam, for example, the APEC Anti-Spam Strategy, the London Action Plan, the Seoul-Melbourne Anti-Spam Memorandum of
Understanding and the relevant activities of OECD and ITU. We call upon all
stakeholders, to adopt a multi-pronged approach to counter spam that includes,
inter alia, consumer and business education; appropriate legislation,
law-enforcement authorities and tools; the continued development of technical
and self-regulatory measures; best practices; and international cooperation.
42. We reaffirm our commitment to
the freedom to seek, receive, impart and use information, in particular, for the
creation, accumulation and dissemination of knowledge. We affirm that measures
undertaken to ensure Internet stability and security, to fight cybercrime and to
counter spam, must protect and respect the provisions for privacy and freedom of
expression as contained in the relevant parts of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and the Geneva Declaration of Principles.
43. We reiterate our commitments
to the positive uses of the Internet and other ICTs and to take appropriate
actions and preventive measures, as determined by law, against abusive uses of
ICTs as mentioned under the Ethical Dimensions of the Information Society
of the Geneva Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action.
44. We also underline the
importance of countering terrorism in all its forms and manifestations on the
Internet, while respecting human rights and in compliance with other obligations
under international law, as outlined in UNGA A/60/L.1 with reference to
Article 85 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome.
45. We underline the importance
of the security, continuity and stability of the Internet, and the need to
protect the Internet and other ICT networks from threats and vulnerabilities. We
affirm the need for a common understanding of the issues of Internet security,
and for further cooperation to facilitate outreach, the collection and
dissemination of security-related information and exchange of good practice
among all stakeholders on measures to combat security threats, at national and
46. We call upon all stakeholders
to ensure respect for privacy and the protection of personal information and
data, whether via adoption of legislation, the implementation of collaborative
frameworks, best practices and self-regulatory and technological measures by
business and users. We encourage all stakeholders, in particular governments, to
reaffirm the right of individuals to access information according to Geneva
Declaration of Principles and other mutually agreed relevant international
instruments, and to coordinate internationally as appropriate.
47. We recognize the increasing
volume and value of all e-business, both within and across national boundaries.
We call for the development of national consumer-protection laws and practices,
and enforcement mechanisms where necessary, to protect the right of consumers
who purchase goods and services online, and for enhanced international
cooperation to facilitate a further expansion, in a non-discriminatory way,
under applicable national laws, of e-business as well as consumer confidence in
48. We note with satisfaction the
increasing use of ICT by governments to serve citizens and encourage countries
that have not yet done so, to develop national programmes and strategies for
49. We reaffirm our commitment to
turning the digital divide into digital opportunity, and we commit to ensuring
harmonious and equitable development for all. We commit to foster and provide
guidance on development areas in the broader Internet governance arrangements,
and to include, amongst other issues, international interconnection costs,
capacity building and technology/know-how transfer. We encourage the realization of multilingualism in the Internet development environment,
and we support the development of software that renders itself easily to
localization, and enables users to choose appropriate solutions from different
software models including open-source, free and proprietary software.
50. We acknowledge that there are
concerns, particularly amongst developing countries, that the charges for
international Internet connectivity should be better balanced to enhance access. We therefore call for the development of strategies for increasing
affordable global connectivity, thereby facilitating improved and equitable
access for all, by:
a) Promoting Internet
transit and interconnection costs that are commercially negotiated in a
competitive environment and that should be oriented towards objective,
transparent and non-discriminatory parameters, taking into account ongoing work
on this subject.
b) Setting up regional high-speed
Internet backbone networks and the creation of national, sub-regional and
regional Internet Exchange Points (IXPs).
c) Recommending donor programmes and developmental financing mechanisms to consider the need to
provide funding for initiatives that advance connectivity, IXPs and local
content for developing countries.
d) Encouraging ITU to
continue the study of the question of International Internet Connectivity (IIC)
as a matter of urgency, and to periodically provide output for consideration and
possible implementation. We also encourage other relevant
institutions to address this issue.
e) Promoting the
development and growth of low-cost terminal equipment, such as individual and
collective user devices, especially for use in developing countries.
f) encouraging ISPs
and other parties in the commercial negotiations to adopt practices towards
attainment of fair and balanced interconnectivity costs.
relevant parties to commercially negotiate reduced interconnection costs for
Least Developed Countries (LDCs), taking into account the special constraints of
51. We encourage governments and
other stakeholders, through partnerships where appropriate, to promote ICT
education and training in developing countries, by establishing national
strategies for ICT integration in education and workforce development and
dedicating appropriate resources. Furthermore, international cooperation would
be extended, on a voluntary basis, for capacity building in areas relevant to
Internet governance. This may include, in particular, building centres of
expertise and other institutions to facilitate know-how transfer and exchange
of best practices, in order to enhance the participation of developing countries
and all stakeholders in Internet governance mechanisms.
52. In order to ensure
effective participation in global Internet governance, we urge international
organizations, including intergovernmental organizations, where relevant, to
ensure that all stakeholders, particularly from developing countries, have the
opportunity to participate in policy decision-making relating to Internet
governance, and to promote and facilitate such participation.
53. We commit to working
earnestly towards multilingualization of the Internet, as part of a
multilateral, transparent and democratic process, involving governments and all
stakeholders, in their respective roles. In this context, we also
support local content development, translation and adaptation, digital
archives, and diverse forms of digital and traditional media, and recognize that these activities can also strengthen local and indigenous
communities. We would therefore underline the need to:
a) advance the process for
the introduction of multilingualism in a number of areas including domain names,
e-mail addresses and keyword look-up;
b) implement programmes that
allow for the presence of multilingual domain names and content on the Internet
and the use of various software models in order to fight against the linguistic
digital divide and ensure the participation of all in the emerging new society;
c) strengthen cooperation between
relevant bodies for the further development of Agenda for the Information
Society technical standards and to foster their global deployment.
54. We recognize that an enabling
environment, at national and international levels, supportive of foreign direct
investment, transfer of technology, and international cooperation, particularly
in the areas of finance debt and trade, is essential for the development of the
Information Society, including for the development and diffusion of the Internet
and its optimal use. In particular, the role of the private sector and civil
society as the driver of innovation and private investment in the development of
the Internet is critical. Value is added at the edges of the network in both
developed and developing countries when the international and domestic policy
environment encourages investment and innovation.
55. We recognize that the
existing arrangements for Internet governance have worked effectively to make
the Internet the highly robust, dynamic and geographically diverse medium that
it is today, with the private sector taking the lead in day-to-day operations,
and with innovation and value creation at the edges.
56. The Internet remains a
highly dynamic medium and therefore any framework and mechanisms designed to
deal with Internet governance should be inclusive and responsive to the
exponential growth and fast evolution of the Internet as a common platform for
the development of multiple applications.
57. The security and stability of
the Internet must be maintained.
58. We recognize that Internet governance includes more than Internet naming and addressing.
It also includes other significant public policy issues such as, inter alia, critical Internet resources, the security and safety of the Internet, and developmental
aspects and issues pertaining to the use of the Internet.
59. We recognize that Internet governance includes social, economic and technical issues including
affordability, reliability and quality of service.
60. We further recognize that
there are many cross-cutting international public policy issues that require
attention and are not adequately addressed by the current mechanisms.
61. We are convinced that there
is a need to initiate, and reinforce, as appropriate, a transparent, democratic,
and multilateral process, with the participation of governments, private sector,
civil society and international organizations, in their respective roles. This
process could envisage creation of a suitable framework or mechanisms, where
justified, thus spurring the ongoing and active evolution of the current
arrangements in order to synergize the efforts in this regard.
62. We emphasize that any
Internet governance approach should be inclusive and responsive and should
continue to promote an enabling environment for innovation, competition and
63. Countries should not be
involved in decisions regarding another country’s country-code Top-Level Domain
(ccTLD). Their legitimate interests, as expressed and defined by each country,
in diverse ways, regarding decisions affecting their ccTLDs, need to be
respected, upheld and addressed via a flexible and improved framework and
64. We recognize the need for
further development of, and strengthened cooperation among, stakeholders for
public policies for generic Top-Level Domain names (gTLDs).
65. We underline the need to
maximize the participation of developing countries in decisions regarding
Internet governance, which should reflect their interests, as well as in
development and capacity building.
66. In view of the
continuing internationalization of the Internet and the principle of
universality, we agree to implement the Geneva Principles regarding Internet
67. We agree, inter alia,
to invite the UN Secretary-General to convene a new forum for multi-stakeholder
68. We recognize that all
governments should have an equal role and responsibility, for international
Internet governance and for ensuring the stability, security and continuity of
the Internet. We also recognize the need for development of public policy by
governments in consultation with all stakeholders.
69. We further recognize
for enhanced cooperation in the future, to enable governments, on an equal
footing, to carry out their roles and responsibilities, in international public
policy issues pertaining to the Internet, but not in the day-to-day technical
and operational matters, that do not impact on international public policy
70. Using relevant international
organizations, such cooperation should include the development of globally
applicable principles on public policy issues associated with the coordination
and management of critical Internet resources. In this regard, we call upon the
organizations responsible for essential tasks associated with the Internet to
contribute to creating an environment that facilitates this development of
public policy principles.
71. The process towards enhanced
cooperation, to be started by the UN Secretary-General, involving all relevant
organizations by the end of the first quarter of 2006, will involve all
stakeholders in their respective roles, will proceed as quickly as possible
consistent with legal process, and will be responsive to innovation. Relevant
organizations should commence a process towards enhanced cooperation involving
all stakeholders, proceeding as quickly as possible and responsive to
innovation. The same relevant organizations shall be requested to provide annual
72. We ask the UN
Secretary-General, in an open and inclusive process, to convene, by the second
quarter of 2006, a meeting of the new forum for multi-stakeholder policy
dialogue — called the Internet Governance Forum (IGF). The mandate of the
Forum is to:
a) Discuss public policy issues
related to key elements of Internet governance in Agenda for the Information
Society order to foster the sustainability, robustness, security, stability and
development of the Internet.
discourse between bodies dealing with different cross-cutting international
public policies regarding the Internet and discuss issues that do not fall
within the scope of any existing body.
c) Interface with appropriate
intergovernmental organizations and other institutions on matters under their
d) Facilitate the
exchange of information and best practices, and in this regard make full use of
the expertise of the academic, scientific and technical communities.
e) Advise all stakeholders in
proposing ways and means to accelerate the availability and affordability of the
Internet in the developing world.
f) Strengthen and
enhance the engagement of stakeholders in existing and/or future Internet
governance mechanisms, particularly those from developing countries.
g) Identify emerging
issues, bring them to the attention of the relevant bodies and the general
public, and, where appropriate, make recommendations.
h) Contribute to
capacity building for Internet governance in developing countries, drawing fully
on local sources of knowledge and expertise.
i) Promote and assess, on an
ongoing basis, the embodiment of WSIS principles in Internet governance
j) Discuss, inter alia, issues relating to critical Internet resources.
k) Help to find solutions to
the issues arising from the use and misuse of the Internet, of particular
concern to everyday users.
l) Publish its
73. The Internet Governance
Forum, in its working and function, will be multilateral, multi-stakeholder,
democratic and transparent. To that end, the proposed IGF could:
a) Build on the existing
structures of Internet governance, with special emphasis on the complementarity
between all stakeholders involved in this process — governments, business
entities, civil society and intergovernmental organizations.
b) Have a lightweight
and decentralized structure that would be subject to periodic review.
c) Meet periodically,
as required. IGF meetings, in principle, may be held in parallel with major
relevant UN conferences, inter alia, to use logistical support.
74. We encourage the UN
Secretary-General to examine a range of options for the convening of the Forum,
taking into consideration the proven competencies of all stakeholders in
Internet governance and the need to ensure their full involvement.
75. The UN Secretary-General
would report to UN Member States periodically on the operation of the Forum.
76. We ask the UN
Secretary-General to examine the desirability of the continuation of the Forum,
in formal consultation with Forum participants, within five years of its
creation, and to make recommendations to the UN Membership in this regard.
77. The IGF would have no
oversight function and would not replace existing arrangements, mechanisms,
institutions or organizations, but would involve them and take advantage of
their expertise. It would be constituted as a neutral, non-duplicative and
non-binding process. It would have no involvement in day-to-day or technical
operations of the Internet.
78. The UN Secretary-General
should extend invitations to all stakeholders and relevant parties to
participate at the inaugural meeting of the IGF, taking into consideration
balanced geographical representation. The UN Secretary-General should also:
a) draw upon any appropriate
resources from all interested stakeholders, including the proven expertise of
ITU, as demonstrated during the WSIS process; and
b) establish an effective and
cost-efficient bureau to support the IGF, ensuring multi-stakeholder
79. Diverse matters relating to
Internet governance would continue to be addressed in other relevant forums.
80. We encourage the development
of multi-stakeholder processes at the national, regional and international
levels to discuss and collaborate on the expansion and diffusion of the Internet
as a means to support development efforts to achieve internationally agreed
development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.
81. We reaffirm our commitment
the full implementation of the Geneva Principles.
82. We welcome the generous offer
of the Government of Greece to host the first meeting of the IGF in Athens no
later than 2006 and we call upon the UN Secretary-General to extend invitations
to all stakeholders and relevant parties to participate at the inaugural meeting
of the IGF.