Working definition of Internet governance......................................
Identifying public policy issues that are relevant to Internet governance and
assessing the adequacy of existing governance arrangements
Developing a common understanding of the respective roles and responsibilities of
all stakeholders from both developed and developing countries
“Proposals for action, as appropriate”
Recommendations related to Internet governance mechanisms
Forum function
Global public policy and oversight
Institutional coordination
Regional and national coordination
Recommendations to address Internet-related issues.........................
Membership and secretariat of the Working Group on Internet Governance.............
Document WSIS-II/PC-3/DOC/5-E
3 August 2005
Original: English
Working Group on Internet Governance
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This report has been produced by the Working Group on Internet
Governance (WGIG), which was set up by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations in accordance with the mandate given to him during the first phase of the
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva, on 10-12
December 2003. The WGIG comprised 40 members from Governments, private
sector and civil society, who all participated on an equal footing and in their
personal capacity. It was chaired by Mr. Nitin Desai, Special Adviser to the
Secretary-General for the WSIS. The list of the members of the WGIG is attached
as an annex to the report.
A background report (hereafter referred to as “Background Report”) that
includes much of the work produced in the course of the WGIG process is made
available separately. It reflects the wide variety of opinions held within the group
and reflects many comments made by stakeholders. The Background Report
makes clear whether an argument or opinion is shared by the entire group or only
by some of its members. It does not have the same status as the WGIG Report,
but can be used as a reference.
The WGIG held four meetings in Geneva: 23-25 November 2004;
14-18 February 2005; 18-20 April 2005; and 14-17 June 2005.
The mandate of the WGIG stemmed from the Geneva phase of the WSIS,
during which Heads of State and Government recognized the importance of the
Internet: they acknowledged¹ that the Internet is a central element of the
infrastructure of the emerging information society, while recognizing that there
are differing views on the suitability of current institutions and mechanisms for
managing processes and developing policies for the global Internet. For this
reason, they requested the Secretary-General to set up a Working Group on
Internet Governance, with a view to preparing the ground for negotiations at the
second phase of the WSIS, to be held in Tunis in November 2005.
The WSIS Declaration of Principles and the WSIS Plan of Action² adopted
in Geneva set the parameters for the WGIG and contain its Terms of Reference
and work programme. The WGIG has been asked, inter alia, to “investigate and
make proposals for action, as appropriate, on the governance of the Internet by
2005”,³ dealing with the following issues:
• Develop a working definition of Internet governance
• Identify the public policy issues that are relevant to Internet governance
• Develop a common understanding of the respective roles and
responsibilities of Governments, existing international organizations and
other forums, as well as the private sector and civil society in both
developing and developed countries
In carrying out its assignment, the WGIG was guided primarily by the key
WSIS principles. In particular, the WSIS principle relating to the stable and
secure functioning of the Internet was judged to be of paramount importance.
Hence, at the outset, the WGIG agreed that all recommendations aiming to
improve current governance arrangements should be fully assessed in terms of
their capacity to address the WSIS principles.
WSIS Declaration of Principles, paras. 48-50 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
WSIS Declaration of Principles, para. 50 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
WSIS Plan of Action, para. 13 (b) (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0005).
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For developing an understanding of governance issues, the WGIG found it
useful to review the different phases of the Internet’s development, from a
research project in the 1960s to a widespread commercial infrastructure with
close to 1 billion Internet users connected in 2004. This historical lens was useful
to identify guiding principles and factors that have enabled or contributed to the
Internet’s successful development, including the open and decentralized nature of
its architecture and the underlying technological development of its core
standards, as well as the management of names and numbers. 
Working definition of Internet governance
While there is a common understanding of the Internet, there is not yet a
shared view of Internet governance, hence the mandate from the WSIS for the
WGIG to develop a working definition of Internet governance. During the 10
years in which the Internet evolved from a research and academic facility into “a
global facility available to the public”,
very different points of view emerged
about the scope and mechanisms of Internet governance. 
The WGIG first considered five criteria, namely that the working definition
should be adequate, generalizable, descriptive, concise and process-oriented.
Second, the WGIG analysed a wide range of public-sector, private-sector and
multi-stakeholder governance mechanisms that currently exist with respect to
different Internet issues and functions. Finally, the WGIG assessed a number of
alternative definitions proposed by various parties in the course of the WSIS
process and related international discussions. 
Taking into account the criteria, analysis and proposals mentioned above, as
well as the larger debate among stakeholders involved in WSIS, WGIG and the
broader Internet community, the WGIG provides the following working
Internet governance is the development and application by Governments,
the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared
principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that
shape the evolution and use of the Internet.
This working definition reinforces the concept of inclusiveness of
Governments, the private sector and civil society in the mechanisms of Internet
governance. This working definition also acknowledges that with respect to
specific issues of Internet governance each group will have different interests,
roles and participation, which in some cases will overlap. 
It should be made clear, however, that Internet governance includes more
than Internet names and addresses, issues dealt with by the Internet Corporation
for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): it also includes other significant
public policy issues, such as critical Internet resources, the security and safety of
the Internet, and developmental aspects and issues pertaining to the use of the
WSIS Declaration of Principles, para. 48 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
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Identifying public policy issues that are relevant to
Internet governance and assessing the adequacy of
existing governance arrangements 
The WGIG devoted much of its attention to the identification of public
policy issues that are potentially relevant to Internet governance, as called for in
paragraph 13 (b) of the Plan of Action. It agreed to take a broad approach and not
exclude any potentially relevant issue. Based on this fact-finding work, the WGIG
established four key public policy areas: 
Issues relating to infrastructure and the management of critical Internet
resources, including administration of the domain name system and Internet
protocol addresses (IP addresses), administration of the root server system,
technical standards, peering and interconnection, telecommunications
infrastructure, including innovative and convergent technologies, as well as
multilingualization. These issues are matters of direct relevance to Internet
governance and fall within the ambit of existing organizations with responsibility
for these matters; 
Issues relating to the use of the Internet, including spam, network
security and cybercrime. While these issues are directly related to Internet
governance, the nature of global cooperation required is not well defined;
Issues that are relevant to the Internet but have an impact much wider
than the Internet and for which existing organizations are responsible, such as
intellectual property rights (IPRs) or international trade. The WGIG started
examining the extent to which these matters are being handled consistent with the
Declaration of Principles; 
Issues relating to the developmental aspects of Internet governance, in
particular capacity-building in developing countries.
After examining in depth the issues pertaining to these four clusters, the
WGIG identified and included in the Background Report the public policy issues
that are relevant to Internet governance. The issues of highest priority, including
related issues and problems, are set out below for the attention of the WSIS.
Administration of the root zone files and system
Unilateral control by the United States Government.
• For historical reasons, the existing system involves only one Government in
the authorization of changes to the root zone file.
Lack of formal relationship with root server operators.
• The root zone operators perform their functions today without a formal
relationship with any authority.
Interconnection costs
Uneven distribution of cost.
• Internet service providers (ISPs) based in countries remote from Internet
backbones, particularly in the developing countries, must pay the full cost of
the international circuits. 
• Absence of an appropriate and effective global Internet governance
mechanism to resolve the issue.
Internet stability, security and cybercrime
• Lack of multilateral mechanisms to ensure the network stability and security
of Internet infrastructure services and applications.
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• Lack of efficient tools and mechanisms to be used by countries to prevent
and prosecute crimes committed in other jurisdictions, using technological
means that might be located within or outside the territory where the crime
had a negative effect.
No unified, coordinated approach.
• There is no global consensus on a definition of spam and no global
arrangement to address this matter or enable national anti-spam laws to be
effective. However, there is an increasing number of bilateral and
plurilateral agreements between countries to enforce national anti-spam
laws, share best practices and cooperate on solutions.
Meaningful participation in global policy development
There are significant barriers to multi-stakeholder participation in
governance mechanisms.
• There is often a lack of transparency, openness and participatory processes. 
• Participation in some intergovernmental organizations and other
international organizations is often limited and expensive, especially for
developing countries, indigenous peoples, civil society organizations, and
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
• The content produced by some intergovernmental organizations and other
international organizations is often restricted to members only or is
available at a prohibitive cost.
• Frequency and location of venues for global policy meetings causes some
stakeholders from more remote areas to limit their participation.
• There is a lack of a global mechanism for participation by Governments,
especially from developing countries, in addressing multisectoral issues
related to global Internet policy development.
Adequate resources have not been available to build capacity in a range of
areas relevant to Internet management at the national level and to ensure
effective participation in global Internet governance, particularly for
developing countries.
Allocation of domain names
Need for further development of policies and procedures for generic top-
level domain names (gTLDs).
• The need for further development of policies for the management and
further development of the domain name space, though also due to the
inherent complexity of the matter, has a significant impact on key issues,
such as the equitable distribution of resources, access for all and
IP addressing
Concerns over allocation policies for IP addresses.
• For historical reasons, there is an imbalance in the distribution of IPv4
This issue has already been addressed by the regional Internet
registries (RIRs). In the light of the transition to IPv6,
some countries feel
See glossary.
Version four of the Internet Protocol.
Version six of the Internet Protocol.
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that allocation policies for IP addresses should ensure balanced access to
resources on a geographical basis.
Intellectual property rights (IPR)
Application of intellectual property rights to cyberspace.
• While there is agreement on the need for balance between the rights of
holders and the rights of users, there are different views on the precise
nature of the balance that will be most beneficial to all stakeholders, and
whether the current IPR system is adequate to address the new issues posed
by cyberspace. On the one hand, intellectual property rights holders are
concerned about the high number of infringements, such as digital piracy,
and the technologies developed to circumvent protective measures to
prevent such infringements; on the other hand, users are concerned about
market oligopolies, the impediments to access and use of digital content and
the perceived unbalanced nature of current IPR rules. 
Freedom of expression
Restrictions on freedom of expression.
• Measures taken in relation to the Internet on grounds of security or to fight
crime can lead to violations of the provisions for freedom of expression as
contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the WSIS
Declaration of Principles.
Data protection and privacy rights
Lack of existence or inconsistent application of privacy and data-protection
• There is a lack of national legislation and enforceable global standards for
privacy and data-protection rights over the Internet; as a result, users have
few if any means to enforce their privacy and personal data-protection
rights, even when recognized by legislation. An example of this is the
apparent lack of personal data protection in some of the WHOIS
Consumer rights
• There is a lack of global standards for consumer rights over the Internet, for
example in the international purchase of goods through e-commerce; as
such, users have few if any means to enforce their rights, even when these
rights are recognized by legislation. In the case of digital goods and online
services, there are problems for the practical and full application of
traditional consumer rights.
• Insufficient progress has been made towards multilingualization.
Unresolved issues include standards for multilingual TLDs, e-mail addresses
and keyword lookup, as well as insufficient multilingual local content.
There is a lack of international coordination. 
The WGIG identified a number of other important issues, such as
convergence and “next generation networks” (NGNs), as well as trade and e-
commerce, without however focusing on them in any detail. 
A database that is widely used to provide information services to Internet users (see glossary).
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Developing a common understanding of the respective
roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders from both
developed and developing countries
Recognizing the essential role of all stakeholders in Internet governance,
this section expands on the roles and responsibilities of the principal stakeholders,
i.e., Governments, the private sector and civil society, as well as
intergovernmental and international organizations, as outlined in the WSIS
Declaration of Principles.
The academic and technical communities also play an
important role.
Governments. The roles and responsibilities of Governments include:
• Public policymaking and coordination and implementation, as appropriate,
at the national level, and policy development and coordination at the
regional and international levels.
• Creating an enabling environment for information and communication
technology (ICT) development.
• Oversight functions.
• Development and adoption of laws, regulations and standards.
• Treaty-making.
• Development of best practices.
• Fostering capacity-building in and through ICTs.
• Promoting research and development of technologies and standards.
• Promoting access to ICT services.
• Combating cybercrime.
• Fostering international and regional cooperation.
• Promoting the development of infrastructure and ICT applications.
• Addressing general developmental issues.
• Promoting multilingualism and cultural diversity.
• Dispute resolution and arbitration.
The private sector. The roles and responsibilities of the private sector
• Industry self-regulation.
• Development of best practices.
• Development of policy proposals, guidelines and tools for policymakers and
other stakeholders.
• Research and development of technologies, standards and processes.
• Contribution to the drafting of national law and participation in national and
international policy development.
• Fostering innovation.
• Arbitration and dispute resolution.
• Promoting capacity-building.
WSIS Declaration of Principles, para. 49 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
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Civil society. The roles and responsibilities of civil society include:
• Awareness-raising and capacity-building (knowledge, training, skills
• Promoting various public interest objectives.
• Facilitating network-building.
• Mobilizing citizens in democratic processes.
• Bringing perspectives of marginalized groups, including, for example,
excluded communities and grass-roots activists.
• Engaging in policy processes.
• Contributing expertise, skills, experience and knowledge in a range of ICT
policy areas.
• Contributing to policy processes and policies that are more bottom-up,
people-centred and inclusive.
• Research and development of technologies and standards.
• Development and dissemination of best practices.
• Helping to ensure that political and market forces are accountable to the
needs of all members of society.
• Encouraging social responsibility and good governance practice.
• Advocating for the development of social projects and activities that are
critical but may not be “fashionable” or profitable.
• Contributing to shaping visions of human-centred information societies
based on human rights, sustainable development, social justice and
Furthermore, the WGIG recognized that the contribution to the Internet of
the academic community is very valuable and constitutes one of its main sources
of inspiration, innovation and creativity. Similarly, the technical community and
its organizations are deeply involved in Internet operation, Internet standard-
setting and Internet services development. Both of these groups make a
permanent and valuable contribution to the stability, security, functioning and
evolution of the Internet. They interact extensively with and within all
stakeholder groups.
The WGIG also reviewed the respective roles and responsibilities of
existing intergovernmental and international organizations and other forums and
the various mechanisms for both formal and informal consultations among these
institutions. It noted that there is scope to improve coordination to some extent.
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“Proposals for action, as appropriate”
Recommendations related to Internet governance mechanisms
The WGIG addressed the adequacy of current Internet governance
arrangements in relation to the principles outlined in the final WSIS documents
and came to the conclusion that some adjustments needed to be made to bring
these arrangements more in line with the WSIS criteria of transparency,
accountability, multilateralism and the need to address all public policy issues
related to Internet governance in a coordinated manner. It grouped these issues in
four clusters: a forum, global public policy and oversight, institutional
coordination, and regional, subregional and national coordination.
The WGIG recommends the creation of a new space for dialogue for all
stakeholders on an equal footing on all Internet governance-related issues.
With regard to the roles and responsibilities of Governments, the WGIG
decided to put forward different options for the deliberations within the WSIS
context. The four different proposals all complement the forum described in
section V.A.1 below.
The WGIG also concluded that there would be merit in improving
institutional coordination, as well as coordination among all stakeholders at the
regional, subregional and national levels.
The four proposals are set out below.
Forum function
The WGIG identified a vacuum within the context of existing structures,
since there is no global multi-stakeholder forum to address Internet-related public
policy issues. It came to the conclusion that there would be merit in creating such
a space for dialogue among all stakeholders. This space could address these
issues, as well as emerging issues, that are cross-cutting and multidimensional
and that either affect more than one institution, are not dealt with by any
institution or are not addressed in a coordinated manner.
The WGIG also noted that one of its overarching priorities was to contribute
to ensuring the effective and meaningful participation of all stakeholders from
developing countries in Internet governance arrangements. Existing institutions
that address some of these Internet-related public policy issues, such as the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), are not
generally global in their membership and therefore developing countries lack a
forum for discussing Internet-related public policy issues. Other global
institutions are narrower in focus or do not allow for multi-stakeholder
participation. It noted that the existing mechanisms do not sufficiently take into
account geographic balance and linguistic diversity. Their fragmented nature and
structure also make it difficult for developing countries to have their voices heard.
One of the main aims of the WGIG is to foster full participation in Internet
governance arrangements by developing countries. The WGIG placed this aim in
the context of one of the priorities it had identified in the course of its work,
namely, capacity-building in developing countries.
Such a space or forum for dialogue (hereafter referred to as “the forum”)
should allow for the participation of all stakeholders from developing and
developed countries on an equal footing. Gender balance should be considered a
fundamental principle with the aim of achieving an equal representation of
women and men at all levels. Special care should be taken to ensure diversity of
participation as regards, inter alia, language, culture, professional background,
WSIS Declaration of Principles, para. 50 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
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involvement of indigenous peoples, people with disabilities and other vulnerable
The forum should preferably be linked to the United Nations, in a form to be
defined. It would be better placed than existing Internet institutions to engage
developing countries in a policy dialogue. This would be an important factor in
itself, as the future growth of the Internet is expected to be mainly in developing
The forum should be open to all stakeholders from all countries; any
stakeholder could bring up any Internet governance issue. The forum would be
reinforced by regional, subregional and national initiatives and supplemented by
open online mechanisms for participation. It should support the information and
communication technologies for development (ICT4D) agenda emerging from the
WSIS and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) processes. It could assume,
inter alia, the following functions:
• Interface with intergovernmental bodies and other institutions on matters
under their purview which are relevant to Internet governance, such as IPR,
e-commerce, trade in services and Internet/telecommunications
• Identify emerging issues and bring them to the attention of the appropriate
bodies and make recommendations.
• Address issues that are not being dealt with elsewhere and make proposals
for action, as appropriate.
• Connect different bodies involved in Internet management where necessary.
• Contribute to capacity-building for Internet governance for developing
countries, drawing fully on local sources of knowledge and expertise.
• Promote and assess on an ongoing basis the embodiment of WSIS principles
in Internet governance processes.
There was a clear understanding that such a forum should not be seen as a
continuation of the WGIG. Rather, it should be modelled on the WGIG open
consultations, supported by a very lightweight structure and guided by a multi-
stakeholder coordinating process, to be defined. Overlap or duplication with
existing institutions should be avoided and the best possible use should be made
of research and work carried out by others.
The forum should develop partnerships with academic and research
institutions to access knowledge resources and expertise on a regular basis. These
partnerships should seek to reflect geographic balance and cultural diversity and
promote cooperation among all regions.
Global public policy and oversight
The WGIG recognized that any organizational form for the governance
function/oversight function should adhere to the following principles:
• No single Government should have a pre-eminent role in relation to
international Internet governance.
• The organizational form for the governance function will be multilateral,
transparent and democratic, with the full involvement of Governments, the
private sector, civil society and international organizations.
• The organizational form for the governance function will involve all
stakeholders and relevant intergovernmental and international organizations
within their respective roles.
WSIS Declaration of Principles, para. 48 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
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The WGIG agreed that the continued internationalization of the Internet and
the principle of universality reinforces the need for a review of existing
governance mechanisms, hence the WGIG undertook such a review and the
results are presented here.
There is a wide range of governance functions that could include audit,
arbitration, coordination, policy-setting and regulation, among others, but not
including involvement in day-to-day operational management of the Internet that
does not impact on public policy issues.
The review considered different organizational models for this purpose and
the four models are set out below for consideration.
WSIS Declaration of Principles, para. 49 (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/0004).
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Model 1
This model envisages a Global Internet Council (GIC), consisting
of members from Governments with appropriate representation from
each region and with involvement of other stakeholders. This council
would take over the functions relating to international Internet
governance currently performed by the Department of Commerce of the
United States Government. It would also replace the ICANN
Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC).
The functions of the GIC should include:
Setting of international Internet public policy and providing the
necessary oversight relating to Internet resource management, such
as additions or deletions to the root zone file, management of IP
addresses, introduction of gTLDs, delegation and redelegation of
Setting of international public policy and coordination for other
Internet-related key issues, such as spam, privacy, cybersecurity
and cybercrime, which are not being fully addressed by other
existing intergovernmental organizations.
Facilitating negotiation of treaties, conventions and agreements on
Internet-related public policies.
Fostering and providing guidance on certain developmental issues
in the broader Internet agenda, including but not limited to
capacity-building, multilingualism, equitable and cost-based
international interconnection costs, and equitable access for all.
Approving rules and procedures for dispute resolution mechanisms
and conduct arbitration, as required.
The relationship between the GIC and technical and operational
Internet institutions, such as the reformed and internationalized ICANN,
should be formalized. In this model, ICANN will be accountable to GIC.
The GIC should be anchored in the United Nations.
For the issues dealt with in this body, the governmental component
will take a leading role. The private sector and civil society will
participate in an advisory capacity.
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Model 2
There is no need for a specific oversight organization.
It may be necessary to enhance the role of ICANN’s Governmental
Advisory Committee (GAC) in order to meet the concerns of some
Governments on specific issues.
The forum, as proposed in section V.A.1 above, with full and equal
participation of all stakeholders, could, in addition to the various
functions set out therein, provide coordination functions for participating
stakeholders and produce analysis and recommendations on some issues.
This forum would provide a coordination function for participating
stakeholders by creating a space in which all issues involving the
existing Internet governance organizations could be openly discussed.
These discussions will be enabled by the transparency of the
participating organizations and participation should include a
commitment to transparency.
The forum would also interact with or create specific issue
initiatives to produce analyses or recommendations on different Internet-
related issues. The initiatives should include all the stakeholders
involved in the issue and would make recommendations to the forum and
to the stakeholders.
Model 3
For policy issues involving national interests, given that no single
Government should have a pre-eminent role in relation to international
Internet governance, an International Internet Council (IIC) could fulfil
the corresponding functions, especially in relation to ICANN/IANA
In addition, its functions might include international public policy
issues relating to Internet resource management and international public
policy issues that do not fall within the scope of other existing
intergovernmental organizations.
For those issues, the governmental component of the IIC will take a
leading role, with the private sector and civil society providing advice.
Equally, the IIC could perform a fostering role for certain
developmental issues on the broader Internet agenda.
The new body could make the Governmental Advisory Committee
(GAC) redundant.
This internationalization should be accompanied by an adequate
host-country agreement for ICANN.
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Model 4
This model brings together and addresses three interrelated areas of
Internet policy governance, oversight and global coordination, and
proposes structures to address the following challenges:
Public policy development and decision-making on international
Internet-related public policy issues led by Governments.
Oversight over the body responsible at the global level for the
technical and operational functioning of the Internet led by the
private sector.
Global coordination of the development of the Internet through
dialogue between Governments, the private sector and civil society
on an equal footing.
The Global Internet Policy Council (GIPC)
“Responsible for international Internet-related public policy
issues”, and contribute public policy perspectives to Internet-
related technical standard-setting.
Government-led mechanism that encompasses issues addressed by
existing intergovernmental organizations and other public policy
issues that currently do not have a natural home or cut across
several international or intergovernmental bodies.
Participation by the private sector and civil society, both in an
observer capacity.
World Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Responsible for the “development of the Internet in both technical
and economic fields” (a role similar to that performed by ICANN).
Private-sector-led body made up of a reformed internationalized
ICANN linked to the United Nations.
In this body, Governments will have two distinct and separate
The oversight function over the body responsible, at the global
level, for the technical and operational functioning of Internet
(ICANN). This is the role currently performed by the Department
of Commerce of the United States Government. This role would be
played by an Oversight Committee appointed by and reporting to
the intergovernmental body (the Global Internet Policy Council).
The oversight function would not be of an operational or
management nature.
The second function is advisory, as currently played by the ICANN
Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC).
Participation of Governments and civil society in an
observer/advisory capacity.
WICANN would have a host-country agreement.
The Global Internet Governance Forum (GIGF)
Responsible for “facilitating coordination (and discussion) of
Internet-related public policy issues”.
Participation on equal footing by Governments, the private sector
and civil society.
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Institutional coordination
Pursuant to paragraph 50 of the WSIS Declaration of Principles, the WGIG
recommends that the secretariats of intergovernmental organizations and other
institutions dealing with Internet governance issues continue to improve the
coordination of their activities and exchange information on a regular basis, both
among themselves and with the forum.
Regional and national coordination
The WGIG noted that international coordination needs to build on policy
coordination at the national level. Global Internet governance can only be
effective if there is coherence with regional, subregional and national-level
policies. The WGIG therefore recommends:
That the multi-stakeholder approach be implemented as far as possible
in all regions in order for the work on Internet governance to be fully supported at
the regional and subregional levels;
That coordination be established among all stakeholders at the national
level and a multi-stakeholder national Internet governance steering committee or
similar body be set up.
Recommendations to address Internet-related issues
The WGIG agreed that there are two overarching prerequisites to enhance
the legitimacy of Internet governance processes:
• The effective and meaningful participation of all stakeholders, especially
from developing countries.
• The building of sufficient capacity in developing countries, in terms of
knowledge and of human, financial and technical resources.
The WGIG identified a number of recommendations emanating from the
priority issues outlined in section III above. Some of these are addressed to the
various Internet governance mechanisms proposed in section V.A above, while
others are not attributed to any specific institutions.
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Administration of the root zone files and root server system of the
domain name system (DNS)
• Define the institutional arrangements and the responsibilities and
relationships between the institutions that are required to guarantee
continuity of a stable and secure functioning of the root server system of the
• Noting that the number of root servers cannot be increased to more than 13
due to protocol limitations, carry out a requirements analysis to determine
the appropriate evolution, including possible restructuring, of the
architecture to meet end-user requirements.
• Clarify the institutional arrangements needed to guarantee continuity of a
stable and secure functioning of the root system during and after a possible
period of governance reform.
IP addressing
• Transition to IPv6 should ensure that allocation policies for IP addresses
provide equitable access to resources.
Interconnection costs
• Invite international agencies and the donor community to intensify their
studies in this area, in particular to examine alternative solutions, such as
the development of regional IP backbones and the establishment of local and
regional access points.
• Call on the groups studying Internet governance issues to take note of the
WSIS Declaration of Principles, i.e., to be multilateral, transparent and
democratic and to have the capacity to address Internet governance in a
coordinated manner, based on a multi-stakeholder approach.
• Invite relevant international organizations to report on these matters to
whatever forum, body or mechanism(s) that the WSIS will create for issues
related to Internet governance and global coordination.
• Encourage donor programmes and other developmental financing
mechanisms to take note of the need to provide funding for initiatives that
advance connectivity, Internet exchange points (IXPs) and local content for
developing countries.
• Building on current international agreements, encourage interested parties to
continue and intensify work in relevant international organizations on
international Internet connectivity issues.
Internet stability, security and cybercrime
• Efforts should be made, in conjunction with all stakeholders, to create
arrangements and procedures between national law enforcement agencies
consistent with the appropriate protection of privacy, personal data and other
human rights.
• Governments, in cooperation with all stakeholders, should explore and
develop tools and mechanisms, including treaties and cooperation, to allow
for effective criminal investigation and prosecution of crimes committed in
cyberspace and against networks and technological resources, addressing the
problem of cross-border jurisdiction, regardless of the territory from which
the crime was committed and/or the location of the technological means
used, while respecting sovereignty.
This issue has received sustained attention in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU), and has been raised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well.
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• There is a need for global coordination among all stakeholders to develop
policies and technical instruments to combat spam.
• WSIS should recognize the need to act against spam and include common
principles of action concerning cooperation in this field. It should recognize
the need to produce anti-spam efforts, not only for legislation and cross-
border enforcement but also in terms of industry self-regulation, technical
solutions, partnerships between Governments and the Internet community,
awareness-raising and user education. Special attention should be given to
the connectivity and bandwidth limitations of developing countries. A joint
statement could be agreed on the occasion of the WSIS and annexed to the
final document(s) of the Summit.
Freedom of expression
• Ensure that all measures taken in relation to the Internet, in particular those
on grounds of security or to fight crime, do not lead to violations of human
rights principles.
Meaningful participation in global policy development
• International organizations, including intergovernmental organizations
where relevant, should ensure that all stakeholders, particularly from
developing countries, have the opportunity to participate in the
determination of policy decisions that affect them, and promote and support
such participation.
• Specific efforts should be made to address the lack of funds of the different
stakeholders of developing countries, which impedes them from actively
and consistently participating in international Internet governance processes.
Data protection and privacy rights
• Encourage countries that lack privacy and/or personal data-protection
legislation to develop clear rules and legal frameworks, with the
participation of all stakeholders, to protect citizens against the misuse of
personal data, particularly countries with no legal tradition in these fields.
• The broad set of privacy-related issues described in the Background Report
should be discussed in a multi-stakeholder setting so as to define practices
to address them.
• The policies governing the WHOIS databases should be revised to take into
account the existence of applicable privacy legislation in the countries of the
registrar and of the registrant.
• Policy and privacy requirements for global electronic authentication systems
should be defined in a multi-stakeholder setting; efforts should then be made
to develop open technical proposals for electronic authentication that meet
such requirements.
Consumer rights
• Efforts should be made to render consumer protection laws and enforcement
mechanisms fully and practically applicable and to protect consumers during
the online purchase of physical and digital goods and online services,
especially in cross-border transactions.
• Efforts should be made to define global consumer rights industry standards,
applicable in the use and/or purchase of online services and digital goods.
These efforts should be agreed by all stakeholders and should take into
consideration applicable local laws and regulations on consumer protection,
IPR and other relevant matters.
• An ongoing multi-stakeholder assessment process for newly developed
technologies that may affect consumer rights should be created.
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Domain names:
Ensuring bottom-up and inclusive development of a transparent policy for
the introduction of multilingual domain names.
Strengthening the participation and coordination of all Governments and
all stakeholders in the governance process. This is required to push
forward the development and implementation of multilingual domain
name solutions, including multilingual e-mail addresses and key word
Strengthening cooperation between IETF and IDN registries,
15 th
creating a sound international environment for the further development of
technical standards and action plan for global deployment.
More effort should be put into developing content development tools to
facilitate the creation of multilingual content.
Governments, the private sector and civil society are encouraged to
promote and create more content in local languages to be posted on the
See glossary.
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Membership and secretariat of the Working Group on
Internet Governance
Nitin Desai
Special Adviser to the Secretary-General for the World Summit on the Information
Society (Delhi/Mumbai)
Abdullah Al-Darrab
Deputy Governor of Technical Affairs, Communications and Information Technology
Commission of Saudi Arabia (Riyadh)
Carlos A. Afonso
Director of Planning, Information Network for the Third Sector;
Member, Brazil’s Internet Steering Committee; Member, Non-Commercial Users
Constituency (Rio de Janeiro)
Peng Hwa Ang
Dean, School of Communication and Information, 
Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)
Karen Banks
Networking and Advocacy Coordinator, Association for Progressive Communications; 
Director, GreenNet (London)
Faryel Beji
President and CEO, Tunisian Internet Agency (Tunis)
Vittorio Bertola
Chairman, ICANN At Large Advisory Committee; President and  CTO, Dynamic Fun 
José Alexandre Bicalho
Member, Brazilian Internet Steering Committee; Adviser to the Board of Directors of
the National Telecommunications Agency (Brasilia)
Kangsik Cheon
Chief Operating Officer, International Business Development, Netpia (Seoul)
Trevor Clarke
Permanent Representative of Barbados to the United Nations Office at Geneva
Avri Doria
Research Consultant (Providence, Rhode Island)
William Drake
President, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility;
Senior Associate, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development
Raúl Echeberría
Executive Director/CEO, Latin American and Caribbean Internet 
Addresses Registry (Montevideo)
Dev Erriah
Chairman, ICT Authority of Mauritius (Port Louis)
Baher Esmat
Telecom Planning Manager, Ministry of Communications and Information
Technology of Egypt (Cairo)
Juan Fernandez
Coordinator of the Commission of Electronic Commerce of Cuba (Havana)
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Ayesha Hassan
Senior Policy Manager for Electronic Business, IT and Telecommunications, 
International Chamber of Commerce (Paris)
David Hendon
Director of Business Relations, United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry
Qiheng Hu
Adviser to the Science and Technology Commission of the Ministry of Information
Industry of China; Former Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Willy Jensen
Director General, Norwegian Post and Telecom Authority (Oslo)
Wolfgang Kleinwächter
Professor, International Communication Policy and Regulation, University of Aarhus
Jovan Kurbalija
Director, DiploFoundation, Geneva/La Valletta (Geneva)
Iosif Charles Legrand
Senior Scientist, California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, California)
Donald MacLean
Director, MacLean Consulting (Ottawa)
Allen Miller
Executive Director, World Information Technology and Services Alliance 
(Arlington, Virginia)
Jacqueline A. Morris
Consultant (Port of Spain)
Olivier Nana Nzépa
Coordinator, Africa Civil Society (Yaoundé)
Alejandro Pisanty
Director of Computing Academic Services, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de
Mexico; Vice-Chairman of the Board of ICANN (Mexico City)
Khalilullah Qazi
Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the United Nations Office at Geneva
Rajashekar Ramaraj
Managing Director, Sify Limited (Chennai (formerly Madras))
Masaaki Sakamaki
Director, Computer Communications Division, Ministry of Internal Affairs and
Communications (Tokyo)
Joseph Sarr
President, NTIC Commission, Dakar Regional Council (Dakar)
Peiman Seadat
Counsellor, Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations
Office at Geneva (Geneva)
Charles Sha’ban
Executive Director, Abu-Ghazaleh Intellectual Property (Amman)
Lyndall Shope-Mafole
Chairperson, Presidential National Commission on Information Society and
Development of South Africa (Pretoria)
Waudo Siganga
Chairman, Computer Society of Kenya (Nairobi)
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Juan Carlos Solines Moreno
Executive Director, Gobierno Digital (Quito)
Mikhail Yakushev
Director of legal support department, Ministry of Information Technology and
Communications of the Russian Federation (Moscow)
Peter Zangl
Deputy Director-General, Directorate General Information Society and Media,
European Commission (Brussels)
Jean-Paul Zens
First Counsellor, Director of the Media and Telecom Department, Ministry of State of
Luxembourg (Luxembourg City)
Markus Kummer, Executive Coordinator
Frank March, Senior Programme Adviser 
Tarek Cheniti, Consultant
Hind Eltayeb, Administrative Assistant 
Robert Shaw, part-time, seconded by ITU 
Howard Williams, part-time, seconded by the University of Strathclyde
David Satola, World Bank (part-time in his personal capacity)
Chengetai Masango, Intern (April-July 2005)
Chango Mawaki, Fellow, in association with DiploFoundation (June 2005)
Seiiti Arata, Fellow, in association with DiploFoundation (June 2005)
Dhrupad Mathur, Fellow, in association with DiploFoundation (June 2005)
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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange; seven-bit encoding of the Roman
Country code top-level domain, such as .uk (United
Kingdom), .de (Germany) or .jp (Japan)
Domain name system: translates domain names
into IP addresses
Governmental Advisory Committee (to ICANN)
Generic top-level domain, such as  .com, .int, .net,
.org, .info
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Information and communication technology
Information and communication technology for
Internationalized domain names: web addresses
using a non-ASCII character set
Internet Engineering Task Force
Intergovernmental organizations
Internet Protocol
IP Address
Internet Protocol address: a unique identifier
corresponding to each computer or device on an IP
network. Currently there are two types of IP
addresses in active use. IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP
version 6 (IPv6). IPv4 (which uses 32 bit numbers)
has been used since 1983 and is still the most
commonly used version. Deployment of the IPv6
protocol began in 1999. IPv6 addresses are 128-bit
Intellectual property rights
Version 4 of the Internet Protocol
Version 6 of the Internet Protocol
International Telecommunication Union
Internet exchange points
Millennium Development Goals
network access points
- 23 -
Next generation network
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
A body approved ("accredited") by a registry to
sell/register domain names on its behalf.
A registry is a company or organization that
maintains a centralized registry database for the
TLDs or for IP address blocks (e.g. the RIRs — see
below). Some registries operate without registrars
at all and some operate with registrars but also
allow direct registrations via the registry.
Regional Internet registries. These not-for-profit
organizations are responsible for distributing IP
addresses on a regional level to Internet service
providers and local registries.
Root servers
Servers that contain pointers to the authoritative
name servers for all TLDs. In addition to the
“original” 13 root servers carrying the IANA
managed root zone file, there are now large number
of Anycast servers that provide identical
information and which have been deployed
worldwide by some of the original 12 operators.
Root zone file
Master file containing pointers to name servers for
all TLDs
Small and medium-sized enterprises
Top-level domain (see also ccTLD and gTLD)
Working Group on Internet Governance
WHOIS is a transaction oriented query/response
protocol that is widely used to provide information
services to Internet users. While originally used by
most (but not all) TLD Registry operators to
provide “white pages” services and information
about registered domain names, current
deployments cover a much broader range of
information services, including RIR WHOIS look-
ups for IP address allocation information.
World Summit on Information Society
World Trade Organization