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Next generation network
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
A body approved ("accredited") by a registry to
sell/register domain names on its behalf.
A registry is a company or organization that
maintains a centralized registry database for the
TLDs or for IP address blocks (e.g. the RIRs — see
below). Some registries operate without registrars
at all and some operate with registrars but also
allow direct registrations via the registry.
Regional Internet registries. These not-for-profit
organizations are responsible for distributing IP
addresses on a regional level to Internet service
providers and local registries.
Root servers
Servers that contain pointers to the authoritative
name servers for all TLDs. In addition to the
“original” 13 root servers carrying the IANA
managed root zone file, there are now large number
of Anycast servers that provide identical
information and which have been deployed
worldwide by some of the original 12 operators.
Root zone file
Master file containing pointers to name servers for
all TLDs
Small and medium-sized enterprises
Top-level domain (see also ccTLD and gTLD)
Working Group on Internet Governance
WHOIS is a transaction oriented query/response
protocol that is widely used to provide information
services to Internet users. While originally used by
most (but not all) TLD Registry operators to
provide “white pages” services and information
about registered domain names, current
deployments cover a much broader range of
information services, including RIR WHOIS look-
ups for IP address allocation information.
World Summit on Information Society
World Trade Organization
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