|photo credit: ITU/V. Martin
|Igor O. Shegolev, Minister of Telecommunications and Mass Communication of
the Russian Federation (left), and ITU Secretary-General Hamadoun I. Touré signed
an agreement on naming an ITU conference room in Popov’s honour
A plaque was unveiled at ITU headquarters in Geneva
on 5 October 2009 to commemorate the work of
Russian physicist and radiocommunications pioneer
Alexander Stepanovich Popov. Joining ITU Secretary-General Hamadoun I. Touré at the unveiling were
Igor O. Shegolev, Minister of Telecommunications
and Mass Communication of the Russian Federation,
Deputy Minister Naum S. Marder, and Valery N.
Bugaenko, Head of the Federal Communications
Agency. Also present were many high-ranking officials and distinguished figures from Russian organizations
in the field of information and communication
The plaque is sited at Conference Room B in ITU’s
“Tower” building. The room will be named in honour
of Popov, in accordance with a Memorandum of
Intent signed at the ceremony by Dr Touré and Mr
Shegolev, under which the Russian Federation will
support refurbishment of the facility and installation
of the latest technology.
This year marks 150 years since the birth of
Alexander Popov in 1859. “The world is a very different
place from what it was when Professor Popov
transmitted his first radio waves. The notion of ‘wireless’
has taken on a whole new meaning,” Dr Touré
commented. “Today we have 4.6 billion mobile
phone subscriptions and over 600 million for mobile
broadband — all working wirelessly. This is astonishing
progress, and it reinforces my firm belief in the
power of ICT to make the world a better place”.
The commemorative plaque was unveiled on the
same day as the opening of ITU TELECOM WORLD 2009.
The presence at that event of many leading Russian
speakers and organizations demonstrates the lasting
legacy of Popov’s work, the Secretary-General said.
Mr Shegolev commented that “it is talented researchers,
inventors, and professionals such as Popov
who provided the building blocks and established the
foundations of our post-industrial information society.”
The minister said that Popov wanted his work “to belong to all of humanity. One hundred years later,
we still need people like him today.”
|The radio receiver developed by Popov
Lightning and radio
After first working at St Petersburg University,
where he had been a student, in 1883 Popov became
a teacher at the Russian Navy’s Torpedo School
at Kronstadt. Electrical power was being introduced
into ships, and he investigated the practical applications
of high-frequency currents and the electromagnetic
(including radio) waves they produced. In 1894,
he finished a device to generate waves, but he could
only detect them over a few metres.
At that time, electromagnetic waves were received
with a “coherer”. Popov improved the coherer’s
sensitivity and invented a mechanism to automatically
re-set the device. He used this equipment to
monitor a serious danger to lives at sea and on land:
lightning. By attaching an antenna to one end of the
coherer and grounding the other, he detected electrical
discharges in the atmosphere many kilometres
away. It was the first time that such an antenna had
been used to receive radio waves.
Popov demonstrated his invention to the Russian
Physical and Chemical Society on 7 May 1895, and it
was later set up at a meteorological observatory. At a
meeting of the Society at St Petersburg University in
March 1896, Popov showed how his work could be
used in general for sending and receiving information
by radio. Signals were sent between buildings some
245 metres apart on the university campus, transmitting
the words “Heinrich Hertz” in Morse code.
Saving sailors’ lives
By 1899, Popov had developed a way to send
radio signals to and from ships up to 30 km away.
And by January 1900, a 47-km radio link had been
established between Hogland Island in the Gulf of
Finland and the coastal town of Kotka. Its purpose
was to communicate with teams working to release
a ship that had run aground on the island. That same
winter was probably the first time that radiocommunications
were ever used to save lives, when Hogland
received a distress call from fishermen stranded on an
ice floe. An icebreaking vessel was immediately sent
to the rescue and the 50 men were saved.
Popov’s radio system earned him a Grand Gold
Medal at the Paris International Exposition of 1900.
In 1901, he returned to St Petersburg as a professor
at the Imperial Institute of Electrical Engineering, and
became its director in September 1905. Just a few
months later, Popov died at the age of 46. But the
date (7 May) upon which he demonstrated equipment
that led to practical systems for detecting
lightning and sending radio messages is celebrated
as “Radio Day” in the Russian Federation. Popov
was truly at the heart of the tremendous period of
progress in communications.