Interface references are crucial to interworking between ODP systems and federation of groups of ODP systems. An interface reference embodies the information needed to establish bindings, including binding to objects in different management domains. An interface reference further embodies information required for the engineering mechanism to maintain computational bindings in the presence of distribution transparencies, such as migration transparency. (Example: keywords to keep include "engineering mechanism", "computational binding", "information", and "distribution transparency".) This Recommendation | International Standard includes:
∙ a framework for binding interfaces and a generic binding protocol (for both stream and operational interfaces);
∙ a specification of the generic information structure of interface references (for both stream and operational interfaces);
∙ representation(s) for interface references when transferred using standardized protocols;
∙ identification of procedures for the management and transfer of interface references with respect to individual transparencies;
∙ identification of node management interfaces related to binding and federation which create or transform interface references.