CONTENTS

Introduction  
1 Scope
2 Normative references
2.1 Identical Recommendations | International Standards
2.2 Paired Recommendations | International Standards equivalent in technical content
2.3 Additional references
3 Definitions
4 Abbreviations
5 Notation
6 Convention
7 Conformance
8 Basic encoding rules
8.1 General rules for encoding
8.2 Encoding of a boolean value
8.3 Encoding of an integer value
8.4 Encoding of an enumerated value
8.5 Encoding of a real value
8.6 Encoding of a bitstring value
8.7 Encoding of an octetstring value
8.8 Encoding of a null value
8.9 Encoding of a sequence value
8.10 Encoding of a sequence-of value
8.11 Encoding of a set value
8.12 Encoding of a set-of value
8.13 Encoding of a choice value
8.14 Encoding of a tagged value
8.15 Encoding of an open type
8.16 Encoding of an instance-of value
8.17 Encoding of a value of the embedded-pdv type
8.18 Encoding of a value of the external type
8.19 Encoding of an object identifier value
8.20 Encoding for values of the restricted character string types
8.21 Encoding for values of the unrestricted character string type
9 Canonical encoding rules
9.1 Length forms
9.2 String encoding forms
9.3 Set components
10 Distinguished encoding rules
10.1 Length forms
10.2 String encoding forms
10.3 Set components
11 Restrictions on BER employed by both CER and DER
11.1 Boolean values
11.2 Unused bits
11.3 Real values
11.4 GeneralString values
11.5 Set and sequence components with default value
11.6 Set‑of components
11.7 GeneralizedTime
11.8 UTCTime
12 Use of BER, CER and DER in transfer syntax definition
Annex A Example of encodings
A.1 ASN.1 description of the record structure
A.2 ASN.1 description of a record value
A.3 Representation of this record value
Annex B Assignment of object identifier values
Annex C Illustration of real value encoding
Annex D Use of the DER and CER in data origin authentication
D.1 The problem to be solved
D.2 The approach to a solution
D.3 The implementation optimization