CONTENTS

Annex 1 – Satellite system reference models    
 1     Scope 
 2     Reference models 
        2.1     Point-to-point links 
        2.2     VSAT networks 
                  2.2.1     Star topology 
                  2.2.2     Mesh topology 
        2.3     Broadband access 
 3     TCP limitations over satellite links 
        3.1     BDP 
        3.2     Slow start and congestion avoidance 
        3.3     Fast retransmit and fast recovery 
        3.4     Effect of bit errors on TCP throughput
Annex 2 – TCP enhancement methodologies    
 1     Scope 
 2     Variations of baseline TCP 
 3     Segment splitting methodologies 
        3.1     Two-segment splitting methodology 
        3.2     Three-segment splitting methodology 
        3.3     Discussion 
 4     Performance enhancing proxies 
        4.1     TCP spoofing 
        4.2     PEP mechanisms 
        4.3     Implications of using PEP 
                  4.3.1     End-to-end security 
                  4.3.2     End-to-end reliability 
Annex 3 – Tests and measured performance of TCP enhancements    
 1     Scope 
 2     TCP performance with splitting enhancement
        2.1     Single TCP connection performance tested without any improvement
                  2.1.1     Single TCP connection performance testing 
                  2.1.2     TCP without performance enhancement
                  2.1.3     Performance of single TCP connection without performance enhancement
        2.2     Two-segment splitting 
                  2.2.1    Configuration of satellite networks 
                  2.2.2     Tests results 
                  2.2.3     Conclusions 
        2.3     Three-segment splitting 
                  2.3.1     Configuration of satellite networks 
                  2.3.2     Test procedures 
                  2.3.3     Test results 
                  2.3.4     Conclusions 
 3     TCP performance over a satellite ATM network 
        3.1     Network configuration 
        3.2     TCP performance in ATM-based satellite-only network 
        3.3     TCP behaviours in heterogeneous networks including satellite link 
                  3.3.1     Simulation of buffer size 
                  3.3.2     TCP performance with traffic control in TCP sender
        3.4     Conclusions 
 4     TCP performance in satellite access networks 
        4.1     Network architecture and configuration 
                  4.1.1     Network architecture 
                  4.1.2     Configuration 
        4.2     Results of performance measurement
                  4.2.1     Availability 
                  4.2.2     Throughput
                  4.2.3     Traffic 
 5     Application protocol measurements (FTP and HTTP)
        5.1     Satellite ATM network configuration 
        5.2     FTP throughput over OC‑3 satellite link 
        5.3     HTTP throughput over OC‑3 satellite link 
                  5.3.1     HTTP 1.0 with non-persistent connections 
                  5.3.2     HTTP 1.0 with “keep-alive” option 
                  5.3.3     HTTP 1.1 without pipelining 
                  5.3.4     HTTP 1.1 with pipelining 
                  5.3.5     Test results 
        5.4     Conclusions