1     Introduction      
 2     Wave-hop propagation theory     
        2.1     General description
        2.2     Calculating the ray-path field strength         
        2.3     Numerical method for calculating resultant field strength and phase  
 3     Calculating field strength by waveguide modes: full wave solution  
        3.1     The ionospheric reflection matrix, R(θ)     
        3.2     The ground reflection matrix, (θ)          
        3.3     The mode finding method (“MODESRCH”)           
 4     Calculation of field strength          
        4.1     Required parameters          
        4.2     WKB and horizontally homogeneous mode sums    
        4.3     Mode sums using mode conversion
        4.4     Ionospheric parameters      
        4.5     Geomagnetic and geophysical parameters   
 5     Discussion  
Annex  1 - Example of a complete calculation of field in amplitude and phase using the wave‑hop method of § 2    
Annex 2 - Accuracy of the methods    
Annex  3 - Some example calculations using the waveguide mode method