Manuel FIBRES OPTIQUES (classeur 1)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I CABLE CONSTRUCTION
1 General
    1.1 Purpose of cable construction for optical fibre
    1.2 Advantages of Optical Fibre Cables
    1.3 Cable application and design factors
2 Mechanical and environmental characteristics
    2.1 Residual fibre strain
        2.1.1 Causes
        2.1.2 Effects
        2.1.3 Constructional Considerations
    2.2 Impulsive fibre strain
        2.2.1 Causes
        2.2.2 Effects
        2.2.3 Constructional considerations
    2.3 Fibre macrobending
        2.3.1 Causes
        2.3.2 Effects
        2.3.3 Constructional considerations
    2.4 Fibre microbending
        2.4.1 Causes
        2.4.2 Effects
        2.4.3 Constructional considerations
    2.5 Water and moisture
        2.5.1 Causes
        2.5.2 Effects
        2.5.3 Constructional considerations
    2.6 Hydrogen
        2.6.1 Causes
        2.6.2 Effects
        2.6.3 Constructional Considerations
    2.7 Lightning
        2.7.1 Causes
        2.7.2 Effects
        2.7.3 Constructional considerations
    2.8 Nuclear Radiation
        2.8.1 Causes
        2.8.2 Effects
        2.8.3 Constructional considerations
    2.9 Induced voltage
        2.9.1 Causes
        2.9.2 Effects
        2.9.3 Constructional considerations
3 General description of Optical Fibre Cables
    3.1 Optical Fibre Protection
        3.1.1 Primary coating of fibres
        3.1.2 Secondary protection of fibres
        3.1.3 Fibre identification
        3.1.4 Optical fibre unit
    3.2 Optical cable core make-ups
        3.2.1 Single unit cables
        3.2.2 Multiple unit cables
        3.2.3 Protection against moisture
    3.3 Strength Members
    3.4 Cable Sheath and Armour
        3.4.1 Cable Sheath Types
        3.4.2 Metal/plastic sheath with metallic tapes or metallic layer
        3.4.3 Plastic sheath only
        3.4.4 Plastic sheath with strength members
        3.4.5 Plastic sheath with embedded strength members with a metallic tape
        3.4.6 Cable sheath with armour
4 Fibre and Cable Tests
    4.1 Optical Transmission Characteristics of Fibres
    4.2 Dimensional Characteristics of Fibres and Optical Cables
    4.3 Mechanical Characteristics of Optical Cables
5 References
CHAPTER II CABLE INSTALLATION
1 General
2 Cable installation planning
    2.1 General considerations
    2.2 Route considerations
    2.3 Cable installation tension predictions for cables pulled into ducts
    2.4 Ambient conditions
    2.5 Information and training
3 Cable installation methods
    3.1 General considerations
    3.2 Installation of cable in underground ducts
        3.2.1 Cable overload protection methods
        3.2.2 Winching equipment and ropes
        3.2.3 Guiding systems and cable bending
        3.2.4 Cable friction and lubrication
        3.2.5 Cable handling methods to maximize installed lengths by pulling
        3.2.6 Blown fibre cable installation systems
        3.2.7 Water pumping system
        3.2.8 Jointing length allowance
    3.3 Installation of aerial cable
        3.3.1 Installation methods
        3.3.2 Cable protection methods
        3.3.3 Winching and guiding systems
        3.3.4 Methods to maximize lengths
        3.3.5 Jointing length allowance
        3.3.6 In-service considerations
    3.4 Installation of buried cable
        3.4.1 Installation methods
        3.4.2 Cable guiding and protection
        3.4.3 Methods to maximize lengths
        3.4.4 Jointing length allowance
    3.5 Installation in special situations
        3.5.1 Tunnel and building lead-in
        3.5.2 Building risers
        3.5.3 Bridges
        3.5.4 Underwater
    3.6 Installation of indoor cable
        3.6.1 Considerations
        3.6.2 Cable routing
    3.7 Other installation methods
        3.7.1 Installations with cable storage systems
        3.7.2 Blown fibre systems
    3.8 Cable pulling and guiding equipment
4 Safety, in-service protection and location
    4.1 Safety
    4.2 In-service protection
    4.3 Location
CHAPTER III FIBRE SPLICING
1 General
    1.1 Loss factors for optical fibres
        1.1.1 Multimode graded index fibres
        1.1.2 Single-mode fibres
    1.2 Splice characteristics
2 Fibre preparation
    2.1 Coating removal
    2.2 End preparation
        2.2.1 Cleaving
        2.2.2 Polishing
3 Fibre alignment
    3.1 Mechanical positioning
        3.1.1 V-groove alignment (Figures 6a/III and 6b/III)
        3.1.2 Alignment with a plane surface (Figure 7/III)
        3.1.3 Alignment in a triangular groove in a soft elastomeric material (Figure 8/III)
        3.1.4 Double eccentric core alignment (Figure 9/III)
    3.2 Visual alignment - microscopic alignment method (Figure 10/III)
    3.3 Active core alignment methods
        3.3.1 Injection/detection alignment methods
        3.3.2 Direct core monitoring
    3.4 Alignment using sensors
4 Fusion splices
    4.1 Techniques
    4.2 Single fibre fusion splices
    4.3 Multiple fibre fusion splices
    4.4 Splice protection
5 Mechanical splices
    5.1 Single fibre mechanical splices
    5.2 Multiple fibre mechanical splices
6 Adhesive-bonded splices
7 Performance tests
    References
CHAPTER IV FIBRE CONNECTORS AND TERMINATIONS
1 General
    1.1 Applications
    1.2 Characteristics
        1.2.1 Alignment by means of high precision parts
        1.2.2 Active alignment connectors: sphere/core system
    1.3 Quality assurance
2 Connector configurations
    2.1 Straight cylindrical tip
    2.2 Biconic connector
    2.3 Membrane connectors
    2.4 V-groove connectors
    2.5 Bare-fibre connectors
    2.6 Actively aligned connectors
    2.7 Multiple-fibre connectors
3 Performance
    3.1 Optical factors
    3.2 Mechanical factors
    3.3 Climatic factors
4 Optical tests
    4.1 Insertion loss test
    4.2 Return loss test
    4.3 Spectral loss test
    4.4 Crosstalk test
5 Mechanical tests
    5.1 Axial tensile strength (combined cable/connectors retention) test
    5.2 Flexure test
    5.3 Mechanical endurance test
    5.4 Impact test
    5.5 Vibration test
    5.6 Nutation test
    5.7 Shock test
    5.8 Static load test
6 Climatic tests
    6.1 Temperature cycling (climatic sequence) test
    6.2 High humidity (steady state damp heat) test
    6.3 Storage temperature (cold/dry heat) test
    6.4 Dust test
    6.5 Industrial atmosphere test
    6.6 Corrosion (salt mist) test
    6.7 Flammability test
7 Fibre distribution units and frames
    7.1 General
        7.1.1 Fibre organiser
        7.1.2 Field fitted connectors and pigtails with factory fitted connectors
        7.1.3 Jumpers
    7.2 Applications
        7.2.1 Fibre termination at transmission equipment
        7.2.2 Fibre rearrangement at network nodes
        7.2.3 Testing
        7.2.4 Signal modification
    7.3 Design consideration
        7.3.1 Cable fibre management
        7.3.2 Connectors
        7.3.3 Jumper management
    7.4 Climatic considerations
    7.5 Mechanical considerations
    References
Annex to Chapter IV
    A.1 Concatenation insertion loss test method
    A.2 Connector concatenation test
    A.3 Single-mode concatenation test
    A.4 Subscriber cable transfer splicing system
CHAPTER V CLOSURES AND ORGANIZERS
1 General
    1.1 Purpose of a cable closure
    1.2 Application of cable closures
    1.3 Types of cable sheath
2 Environmental and mechanical characteristics
3 Fibre organizers
    3.1 Purpose of organizers
    3.2 Selection factors
    3.3 Types of organizers
    3.4 Examples of organizers
4 Closures
    4.1 Classification of closures
    4.2 Examples of closures
5 Test methods
CHAPTER VI PROTECTION/RESTORATION
1 General
    1.1 Surveillance systems
2 Emergency restoration plan
    2.1 Fault location
    2.2 Restoration methods
    2.3 Restoration procedures
        2.3.1 Planning and readiness
        2.3.2 Physical restoration alternatives
        2.3.3 Permanent repair considerations
        2.3.4 Joint spacing
3 Lightning protection
Annex A
    A.1 Optical fibre line support system
    A.2 Early warning monitoring system
        A.2.1 Introduction
        A.2.2 System components
        A.2.3 Alarm circuit panels
        A.2.4 Alarm circuit termination
        A.2.5 Splice sensor units and moisture detection tape
        A.2.6 How the system works
    A.3 Examples of provision repair
        A.3.1 Provisional repair, using 250 meter or 25 meter repair cables; and afterwards a final repair
        A.3.2 Provisional repair using mechanical splices and patch cords
        A.3.3 An example of fibre ribbon cable restoration
CHAPTER VII CABLES INSIDE BUILDINGS
1 General
    1.1 Purpose of Optical Fibre Cables Inside Buildings
    1.2 Application of Optical Fibre Cables Inside Buildings
    1.3 External Factors
    1.4 Types of Apparatus
2 Environmental and Mechanical Characteristics
    2.1 Optical Fibre Cable
    2.2 Apparatus
    2.2.1 Cabinets, Organizers, Connectors, Splices
3 Test Methods
Annex A
    A.1 Examples of Single-Fibre Optical Cable
    A.2 Examples of Dual-fibre optical cable
    A.3 Examples of multi-fibre optical cable
    A.4 Examples of cabinets
CHAPTER VIII PASSIVE OPTICAL COMPONENTS
1 General
2 Attenuators
    2.1 General
    2.2 Applications
    2.3 Attenuation concepts
        2.3.1 Fibres non-contacting
        2.3.2 Fibres contacting
    2.4 Performances [2]
        2.4.1 Optical factors
        2.4.2 Mechanical and environmental factors
3 Branching devices
    3.1 General
        3.1.1 Block description
        3.1.2 Characterization parameters
    3.2 Manufacturing technologies and design rules
        3.2.1 Axial alignment technologies
        3.2.2 Transversal alignment technologies
        3.2.3 Integrated optics technology
    3.3 Performance tests
4 Optical fibre amplifiers
    4.1 General
        4.1.1 Advantages of optical fibre amplifiers
        4.1.2 Applications of optical fiber amplifiers
        4.1.3 Types of optical fibre amplifiers
        4.1.4 Characterization parameters
    4.2 Amplifier configurations
        4.2.1 Amplification principle
        4.2.2 Amplifier scheme
        4.2.3 Pump scheme
        4.2.4 Amplifier technologies
    4.3 Performances
        4.3.1 Optical factors
        4.3.2 Environmental factors
    4.4 Reference
CHAPTER IX THE CONFIGURATION OF OPTICAL PLANT IN DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
General
1 Introduction
    1.1 Scope
2 Abbreviations
3 Network architectures
    3.1 General considerations
        3.1.1 Optical attenuation
    3.2 Different architectures
        3.2.1 Point-to-point (Figure 1)
        3.2.2 Multiple star (Figure 2)
        3.2.3 Tree and Branch (Figure 3)
        3.2.4 Ring (Figure 4)
    3.3 Use of different architectures
4 Optical fibre cable
5 Passive optical components
6 Fibre joint organisers
7 Network installation and maintenance
    7.1 Maintenance tools
8 Electrical power supply
9 Optical safety
10 Other local distribution network references
    References