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Home : ITU-T Home : Workshops and Seminars : Workshop on ICT in Vehicles
 The Fully Networked Car Workshop
 PALEXPO, Geneva, 2 - 3 March 2011 Contact:  
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COMeSafety2 – A European Co-ordination Action driving Cooperative System Realization
Timo Kosch
(BMW Group)

The presentation will provide information about the COMeSafety2 Coordination Action which aims at the realization of cooperative systems on European roads. The presentation will include information on how the project supports the development of the necessary standards under the European Commission’s ITS standardization mandate at ETSI and CEN. It will also explain how the mutual validation and exploitation of program results under the EU-US cooperation agreement are supported by the project. It will show the way forward on how the European ITS Communications Architecture, developed by COMeSafety and meanwhile a European Norm, can be implemented – from an OEM’s perspective. The focus of the presentation will be on the support for standardization, with a focus on the European activities, complemented with aspects on international harmonization, as a prerequisite for the implementation.
Kerry JohnsonKeeping the Car Relevant through Mobile Device Connectivity
(QNX Software Systems)

Mobile services offered on smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices are growing at a phenomenal rate. Moreover, many of these services offer significant utility to vehicle drivers and passengers; in fact, some are designed specifically for in-vehicle use. These services include maps with local search capabilities that find restaurants and other points of interest, geosocial networking applications that locate nearby friends, and services that find the closest available parking spot or lowest nearby gas price.

Often, these services are rare or non-existent in the telematics systems currently available from automakers. This situation is unlikely to change, for the simple reason that the development cycles for automotive systems are significantly longer than those for mobile devices and services. Recognizing this problem, automakers are looking for new ways to leverage the consumer mobile service infrastructure and to bring Internet-based services into the vehicle — the OnStar Mobile App and BMW ConnectedDrive being prime examples.

In this session, we examine the benefits and drawback of various approaches to mobile application integration and discuss how they impact the user experience, driver distraction, system upgradability, access to new mobile applications, and brand identity. The discussion will include techniques such as Terminal Mode, iPod Out, remote skins, and tethering.
Connected vehicles address multiple areas of automotive innovation
Jim Bridgwater
(Freescale Semiconductors)

As in-car telematics and infotainment systems continue to evolve, they will have increasing similarities in functionality with mobile consumer platforms such as smartphones and tablet computers. At the same time, car users will also face a choice as to whether to use their portable device in the car, or to use the system embedded in the car, or both together. It will also be possible to run applications either on the local device, in the “cloud”, or some combination of the two. All this will open up new possibilities in the level of services, but also the level of driver distraction, that are possible. This paper will argue that the car must be come the filter, managing safe and unsafe activities. Innovation in automotive safety systems and safe but convenient integration of connectivity into the car can result in fewer accidents, better services and lower environmental impact.
The Connected Vehicle – Opportunities, Threats and Solutions for Connected Vehicles and Secure Telematics
Pat Kennedy
(Cellport Systems)

Smart Phones are creating a new environment for in-vehicle software applications. These newly empowered applications include real-time mapping and traffic data, ecommerce systems, access to cloud-based multimedia, social networks, information searching, and data communication. However this new, and largely unstandardized, environment presents security risks for these applications, users and, vehicle resources. Historically, vehicle electronics communication systems have been closed systems considered intrinsically secure. Now, users’ desire enhanced connectivity for consumer devices and services while creating potential exposure of vehicle systems to attacks by malware from unknown applications. Cellport proposes a secure telematics framework to reduce this vulnerability by offering a standardized architecture to solve this complex problem.

STF Architecture Overview
The core of Secure Telematics Framework is an embedded Security Controller. This Controller can be configured as a security gateway, or as a process monitor watching traffic on the vehicle bus. The Security Controller authenticates, authorizes and monitors all traffic between the external interfaces and the vehicle. Credentials and access control lists are stored in a Credential/Assertion Repository. The STF model offers both Centralized Security and Federated Security. These credentials can be used to provide ecommerce security or authenticate applications.

The Controller can monitor the use of the vehicle resources. Consider an application that uses head-unit display. Should an application try to send a command to a vehicle resource unrelated to the display, the Security Controller will block the command. The Security Controller reports or logs the errant behavior of the corrupted application. The Security Controller also monitors the behavior of an application in the context of the vehicle state. For example, this function could be used to prevent the vehicle display from presenting distracting information while the vehicle is in motion, or to limit the information to minimize the driver distraction.

Future software applications running in vehicles present unknown safety and security risks. A means to protect against unknown software exploits and secure the vehicle and its users is necessary. Cellport believes that automotive producers will turn Telematics Security into a high margin recurring revenue stream. The Secure Telematics Framework offers a systematic way to provide protection for applications and transactions, ensuring security, comfort and safety to vehicles and their users.
Connected cars: What does it mean for the vehicle Electrics/Electronics-Architecture and for the semiconductor suppliers?
Marc Osajda
(Freescale Semiconductors)

Without any doubt “connected vehicle” is the next big step in mobility. We are living in a fully connected world; however our vehicles are still relatively closed system, providing very little embedded connectivity and communication with the external world while moving. This will evolve driven by new societal needs, but also to enable electro mobility, reduce road fatalities and provide better services.

However the electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture of future connected vehicles will have to evolve in order to take into account new challenges: Significantly more data exchanged, security of exchanged data, functional safety requirements.

These new vehicle E/E architectures have also significant implications for the semiconductor industry. Computing power requirements is exploding, memory size is growing exponentially with more and more complex software, power consumption reduction is a must, ISO26262 compliant solutions is becoming standard, and security/anti tampering features are being requested at the silicon level.

This presentation will describe how the semiconductor industry is addressing theses challenges.
An NXP Semiconductors vision on the telematics roadmap towards 2020
Ir. Frank Daems
(NXP Semiconductors)

After successful introduction of ATOP (Automotive Telematics On board unit Platform) as an initial automotive compliant Telematics component , NXP is now ready to line out the product and technology roadmap towards the Telematics services in 2020.

This presentation gives a view on the expected markets, services and the related technology and IT functions needed.

It creates insight in advanced usage and service models and their impact on the actual business models and standards

The second part of the presentation concludes on those insights and formulates area’s of new potential initiatives for automotive service standards.

The presentation focuses to volume markets as roadpricing, ecall and car to infra and car to car applications.
Driver Distraction – To what extent can the work of ITU-T contribute to reduce drivers distraction?
Hans W. Gierlich
(HEAD acoustics GmbH, ITU-T Focus Group on Car Communication (FG CarCOM))

While driving most of the human senses are occupied by the driving task. Since the human visual systems as well as the hands are used for driving - speech and hearing are most likely the human senses which can be used for controlling car functions and interacting with all types of (multimedia) services. Furthermore speech communication is most likely the only service which can be used while driving without distracting the driver. Therefore a mostly perfect and seamlessly integrated speech interface is a key element in order to reduce the driver’s distraction.

Since it’s beginning the ITU-T Focus Group CarCom is working on standards which help to improve the communication quality in the car. The work so far has been focusing on narrowband and wideband car hands-free systems. A special focus was made on superior speech quality. So to cover all aspects of communication the work takes into account:
- Superior speech quality on the car
- Superior speech quality for the far end listener
- Superior noise cancellation to provide excellent speech quality while driving
- Low delay for good conversational interaction
- Good double talk performance for seamless and relaxed conversation

Furthermore requirements the different subsystems used in the cars are and their interaction are currently under discussion, FG CarCom is developing interfaces, testing procedures and requirements possibly including interface requirements for improved speech recognition.

The presentation will explain the key elements and requirements for a seamless service and their potential impact on driver’s distraction.
Using Telepresence to Enhance the Driving Experience
Scott Pennock
(QNX Software Systems)

Telepresence refers to the degree of realism created by a telecommunications system. When the level of telepresence is high, users feel as if they are physically present at the far end of the connection — or that the person at the far end of the connection is physically present in the local environment.

System designers are using two emerging technologies, wideband speech and stereo telephony, to help increase telepresence. This session will explore the current state and latest trends of these technologies in the automotive environment. Topics will include wideband deployment on mobile networks (Europe so far), the increase in telepresence terminals (TVs, laptops, etc.), the growing availability of IP connectivity (LTE, WiFi, etc.), standardization efforts related to telepresence, and importantly, techniques for turning the vehicle into a telepresence terminal.

The session will include audiovisual demonstrations to help attendees experience the increased sense of presence firsthand. The session will also include techniques for using telepresence to reduce driver distraction.
ATX Research on Using Voice Technologies to Mitigate Driver Distraction
Arnaud de Meulemeester
(ATX Group)

Growing regulatory concern in the U.S. in recent years about potential visual, tactile and cognitive distractions to drivers in moving vehicles has focused primarily on the in-vehicle receipt and transmission of text-messages on portable communications devices and the typing of destinations into vehicle navigation systems, both nomadic and embedded.

In this research study, ATX Group, an automotive telematics service provider to global automobile manufacturers, and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, assessed the performance of an ATX-developed, speech-based interface with naïve drivers as a substitute for visual and tactile dependent tasks involved in texting message and entering destinations during driving. The study also sought to assess the learning required of drivers to use the speech-based interface. Performance was measured by whether the task was successfully completed and the duration of task completion, eye glance analysis, vehicle speed and lane maintenance, and workload (mental demand, frustration, awareness). .

Results suggest sizeable advantages in the use of voice controls for both destination entry and texting tasks. Drivers were able to perform tasks with lane maintenance, eye glance analysis, and subjective workload ratings showing significant advantages of voice-based tasks over manual.

It was observed during both the texting and destination entry tasks that there were no clear age or gender differences in performance, limited source of confusion in using voice technology to complete the tasks even without a formal overview of how to use the system, and that a majority of participants were impressed with the system's ease of us. In this research, it appears participants found the voice system intuitive and easy to learn and non-distracting in terms of focusing on the driving task.
The SafeTRIP project: improving road safety for passenger vehicles, using S-band satellite communications
Sébastien Grazzini

SafeTRIP is an Integrated project (IP) of 20 partners from 7 European countries, representing partners with a wide range of research and business and interests and expertise, coordinated by the motorway company Sanef of France. The total research effort is about € 11.5 million, with funding of € 7.9 million by the European Commission (DG Research). SafeTRIP started in October 2009 and will last 3 years; its main objective is to improve the use of road transport infrastructures and to optimize the alert chain in case of incidents – this will be achieved through an integrated system from data collection to safety service provision.

SafeTRIP builds on a new satellite technology: S-band communication via the W2A satellite. W2A which was launched by Eutelsat in April 2009, is specially designed for providing DVB-SH broadcasting and opens new perspectives for European telecommunications. The S-band transmitter is optimized for multimedia content delivery and 2-way communications for on-board vehicles units. This new satellite technology gives the opportunity to progress beyond the state of art allowing 2-way communications via small omni-directional antennas on the mobile units. Its advantages include full coverage across Europe, multicast data transmission, quick and easy deployment, and energy efficiency, since the satellite is powered by solar panels.

The approach of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility, the business cases and to experiment a subset of applications using three road-based scenarios supported by on-field experimentations. Then, according to the project outcomes, we will identify other remaining obstacles - technical, legal, organisational, economic - for large-scale deployments. Our proposed business model is to allow any third party developers to implement their services using this unique, open system. The motor and telecom industry in general will be able to benefit from vehicles "always connected".
On Board Unit hardware and software design for Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANET)
Paolo Pagano
(National Inter-University Consortium for Telecommunications (CNIT) Research Unit, Pisa)

The Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) are special wireless distributed systems where nomadic nodes, On-Board Units (OBUs), exchange messages with other OBUs and/or Road Side Units (RSU) to fulfil either safety critical, comfort oriented, or journey optimation tasks. An effective design for OBUs must allow for interoperability with independent systems inside and outside the vehicles. Following this requirement we designed, manifactured, and tested an ARM based platform embedding local non-volatile storage modules, and I/O peripherals to communicate with the vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and an IEEE802.11a/p compliant radio transceiver. This board, prototyped to be integrated into a Fully Networked Car, is designed for smart spaces, namely those usually called Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), where the car is supposed to produce information like transit time and consume information to update forecasts on transit time. Since the car can communicate with other cars (equipped with a similar OBU) within the range of the radio transceiver, the ITS smart space is eligible to scale to any surface.

The possible application scenarios are many, as a matter of example hereby we cite:
  • navigation systems OEM can profit of real-time information ordered by the ITS and acquire it in digital form via the IEEE802.11a/p module; high level services like \park finder", and \path discovery" would be more reliable avoiding to make use of statistics on historical data series.
  • in case of accident (or other kind of danger notified by the ITS) the system warns the driver by visual and acustic signals acting on the dashboard display and the speakers; if active safety is considered, the OBU can in turn trigger the brake system OEM and slow-down the vehicle;
  • the calculated mean value for fuel consumption is used for predicting the residual vehicle autonomy and displaying such information on the dashboard. In the ITS, the OBU can acquire information about the altimetric profile of the route together with fresh updates about the traffic: the resulting prediction will be therefore more precise.
The main processor embedded in the board can be programmed making use of open source software based on Linux Embedded Operating Systems. Following this approach, a set of prototype software modules have been implemented. In the demo session, some real-time operations performed by the OBU will be shown: for instance the data packets acquired from the IEEE802.11a/p network interface will be published in the form of CAN messages and shown on a laptop.
A Study of Network Coding for Multi-antenna Switched Linksbased Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Communications
Wai Chen (Telcordia Technologies), Ratul Guha (Telcordia), Jasmine Chennikara-Varghese (Telcordia), Rama Vuyyuru (Toyota ITC), Junichiro Fukuyama (Toyota ITC)

In recent years, there have been significant research efforts related to vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications. The main demand of the V2V communications is originally from safety-related applications; other possible application areas including communications support for traffic management have also received much attention. Previously, an architectural framework for organizing V2V networks that employs dynamically switched directional radio links has been proposed by the authors. The architecture strives to reduce wireless channel contention associated with omnidirectional antenna-based networking architecture and, as a result, leads to a simple protocol specification for V2V communications.

In this presentation, we will first review our proposed V2V networking architecture that employs dynamic switched directional links. We then describe methods for network coding on such V2V networking architecture. Owing to the increased reliability requirements for safety applications, the resources (e.g., transmission capacity) for other types of applications may be limited. As a result, other high-throughput applications (such as traffic information, software updates, etc.) may have limited available capacity. We will describe evaluation results of network coding methods on switched link architecture, and then discuss the advantages of network coding for high-throughput applications in vehicular environments.

Finally, we will conclude by outlining some key open challenges in network coding for V2V communications.
From the connected car to the managed car
Yoram Berholtz
(Red Bend Software)

This presentation will explore IVI from a connected software perspective. First, it describes how the automotive Industry is changing by providing wireless connectivity to cars and offering in-vehicle services. Based on an analysis of current IVI needs, the presentation then looks at relevant lessons from the mobile phone industry. Finally, the presentation will presents an outline of a good In-Vehicle Infotainment solution that brings together the best of breed mobile software management with a powerful virtualization solution.
Platform Communication Services for Electric Vehicles
Chanan Gabay
(Better Place) and Marc Brogle (Better Place), Johannes Tulusan (SAP Research) and Michal Shany (SAP Research)

The most recent estimates by automotive experts predict a high increase of Full Electric Vehicles (FEV) until 2020. Important aspects such as technological improvements, electricity infrastructure, user enablement, services, and governmental regulations need be resolved in order to enable E-Mobility for Road Transport. One crucial and crosscutting factor for the successful introduction of FEV is the acceptance by the driver of FEVs.

Due to these known challenges, Electricity Information and Communication Technologies (EICT) and Services are needed to neutralize the driver’s "range anxiety": the fear to break down due to the vehicle's power range limitation and at the same time to cope with the sparse distribution of electrical supply points during the ramp-up phase.

Therefore, the ELVIRE (Electric Vehicle Communication to Infrastructure, Road Services and Electricity Supply) EU project, funded under FP7, will develop an effective system, which is capable of effectively managing users mobility needs, aimed at neutralizing the driver’s "range anxiety" and encouraging the customers to embark on the fully electric road transport

ELVIRE consortium includes 12 partners such as Continental, Renault, Volkswagen, SAP, ENDESA, Better Place, CEA-LIST, ERPC, ATB and the Erasmus University College.

In this paper, we specifically identified the functionality requirements needed to develop an interactive EV service interface between the vehicle and its electricity infrastructure.

The identification of the respective functionalities and requirements is achieved by defining a storyline based on typical driving scenarios of an FEV driver and his / her mobility needs. These scenarios, which were iteratively evaluated from car manufacturers, infrastructure, utility providers, automotive suppliers, and research organisations, formed the "ELVIRE Storyline". Defined scenarios include FEV requirements from driving a FEV, continues monitoring, charging and the possibility to swap the battery. Thus, covering an end-to-end service support of the FEV value chain.

The storyline describes typical systematic activities in 'a day in the life of an FEV consumer' divided into four phases: Driving with a Plan, Charging, and Driving without a plan, and Home Charging. For instance, the FEV driver is able to plan his / her route according to the energy needs and the on-board system defines the route accordingly. Another use case includes the notification from the system of the driver if the battery level is too low and offering him / her various options to recharge or change the battery. Therefore, the FEV on-board system takes an active / smart role to support the driver to reach the destination.

A more thorough analysis of the ELVIRE Storyline generates an understanding of FEV services, such as Driving Services, Energy Services and Generic Services. These services are required to support the FEV driver and to reduce the “range anxiety”. As a next step, from the defined scenarios, functional requirements are defined in order to develop the FEV systems and to demonstrate them in a real world setting.
New Energy Vehicles and ICT - An Entrance to the Future Smart Communication World
Fumihiko Tom Tomita
(Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)

Sales tide of the EV (Electric Vehicle) has been started in the world. Total amount of the sales has been limited since now, but the EV may become a world dominant automobile category in the future. Because its power source is supported by a battery, and as a “mobile energy”, the EV is on very good terms with the ICT and one candidate of the real fully networked car. It will work especially under new social systems such as on-demand taxis/buses, personal/public city commuters, and a PV (Photovoltaic)-EV combination use in HEMS (Home Energy Management Systems), etc. The EV will also spread out to the world new users, and these new social systems will evolve into the future smart communication world.

The EV and ad-on-board electronics such as a car-pad or this fully networked car (EV-ICT) system will be not only a kind of the consumer electronics, but also will become new category of transporter. And, this mobile electronics or location-free energy and their information will be applicable to many kind of human life including the health and the security. Because our society has been supported by much kind of industries, the smart communication world centered by EV-ICT will be realized on the cross-industry ICT utilization.

ITU have to think about the future world human happiness, and fully networked car system will play one of the central roles there. At this EV-ICT revolution era, let’s start the cross-Industry cooperation in the ITU for the future world human happiness. Especially, the international standardization such as the communication between pedestrians and vehicles (P2V), and vehicles and vehicles (V2V) is an urgent theme for the world human safety life.
Lithium cells and other battery factors influencing EVs
George Paterson

Current status of batteries.
What the future can hold on cell chemistry
Other factors influencing battery design.
Factors influencing battery life
How the above affect transport of the future
The design and integration of a high performance series hybrid powertrain in a Lotus Evora sportscar
Phil Barker
(Lotus Engineering)

At the Geneva Auto Show 2010, Lotus Engineering showcased the Lotus Evora 414E high performance series hybrid concept car. Since then, a project has been started to build a number of running vehicles and this presentation will outline the project workscope.

The aims of the project will be identified together with the technical aspects of the specification and package of the series hybrid drivetrain. This will include details of the motor drive system, the battery pack, the Range Extender engine their associated thermal management. Additional comments will be made regarding the driver environment and the systems that can be put in place to enhance driver enjoyment of such a vehicle. Safety aspects will be outlined and some of the considerations behind how the controls systems are configured, including whole vehicle communication and integration.

Additionally, there will be a focus on the analysis work conducted to understand the performance and also the benefits in fuel consumption and therefore CO2.
The Electrical Vehicle (EV) Ready Company
Ignacio Dizy
(Telefónica Spain)

The electrical vehicle is a new business that is not looked up in the same manner across the organization. The Electrical Vehicle (EV) ready company needs to link the innovations and developments of the different departments and foster cross company EV culture and habits.

Telefónica's Climate Change Office created a Task Force of the Electric Vehicle that EV penetration as part of its Climate Change Strategy.

The TFVE sizes the EV business opportunities outside and across the company, from Research to Sales and vice versa, giving an end-to-end service approach to ICT innovation and services developments.

This presentation talks about EV penetration in Spain and across Europe.
Synthesis of all normative documents concerning Electrical vehicle and charging infrastructure
Pierre Malaterre

Now this is sure we are going to Electrical Vehicle era. Some of the biggest problems are batteries behavior; Safety, performances, charging process…

It is obvious that the charging process must be standardized. Everybody must be able to recharge the battery of his car, everywhere and independently of car brand. Different lobbies think that they have the good solution: Electricity furnishers, service providers, Electrical vehicle manufacturers….The governments want also have an universal infrastructure solution and as soon as possible.

The presentation focuses on different actual proposal Several topics are under normalization process:
Safety of Li Ion Battery
Way of Charging AC,DC, High or low power…
Way of customer identification and payment, various services, communication with infrastructure
EMC problems due to High power switching
Safety versus Electricity (repair shop and manipulation of charging connectors and cords…)
Connectors between cars and charging stations
A lot of standardization organisms ISO, IEC, UIT, CEN CENELEC SAE ETSI ….are involved
A list of relevant standard will be shown, in the presentation, with their scope: ISO 15118, IEC 61851, IEC 62196, J1772, IEC 62660, ISO 12405, ISO 23274 …
Cooperative systems: the point of view of a road operator
Guy Frémont

Cooperative systems will allow the exchange in real time of information between vehicles and road network operators. They will be supported by V2V, V2I and even I2I communication systems that will allow real time, secure, ubiquitous communication, between thousands of users at the same time and within the same location. Vehicles will be located through accurate satellite positioning combined with other on-board sensors.

Vehicles are sources and recipient of information and event will relay it to other vehicles. The quality and reliability of information can be improved with the development of “Community networks of motorists”. On-board units will receive, process and transmit large amounts of data, but will display the relevant messages to the drivers at the right time. Messages will be filtered and presented according the priority criteria like risk of collision, distance to incidents. Cooperative systems will allow accident prevention: warnings displayed on the screen on the on-board unit will inform the driver on his environment, traffic situation, risk of collision, etc., so that he can adapt his speed, change lane or even break to avoid an obstacle.

As motorists’ safety is impacted, cooperative networks cannot be unregulated; it is very important that all the information exchanged between vehicles and infrastructure is coherent whatever the media used for broadcasting. Information transmitted by road operators can be given to road users through VMS, FM traffic radio, cellular networks, WiFi, etc., but the driver would not have confidence in the system and would not have the appropriate behaviour if the information given would be contradictory. So, it is important for the success of the system and the security of all the information transmitted is compiled and validated by professionals, like road operators.

Typically, a road traffic centre is responsible for collecting, compiling and processing large amount of data and for providing traffic information and warnings to road users, according to rules defined and agreed by road authorities. It would be too dangerous to leave unregulated road side devices broadcasting messages with the “stamp” of road operator. V2V communication should be used, but limited to the transmission of hazard warning, in order to extend the horizon of the driver beyond the visibility range.

This paper will present the main objectives and outcomes of EC funded research projects such as SAFESPOT, COOPERS, CVIS and SafeTRIP and express the point of view of a road operator towards community networks.
Connected Car and Expressway Traffic Management in China
Yun Yang
(ITS Center, China)

1. The status of expressway networks in China and the major issues faced by traffic management

2. what have been done in China – standardization and deployment of ETC, National Highway Network Management in China, etc.

3. How to improve highway network operation management through public wireless network and integrate ETC and information services are researching in China
Standardization in Japan and activities toward international harmonization on ITS Cooperative Systems
Takeshi Yamamoto
(NEC Corporation, ITS Business Promotion Center)

Standardization activities on ITS Cooperative Systems have been conducted worldwide. For example in Japan, development of a preliminary ARIB standard on Safe Driving Support Systems using 700MHz band has started in ITS Info-Communications Forum.

Since the standardization activities are in progress in each Standards Development Organization (SDO) and the region, sharing information on the existing ITS related standards and current ITS standardization activities should be facilitated among SDOs.
Furthermore, coordination of ITS standardization activities is desirable to avoid conflicting standards.

Japan proposed in ITU-R SG5 WP5A to develop a new report on ITS Cooperative Systems; “Advanced ITS Radiocommunications” and the development is ongoing.
ARIB is leading ITS Task Force in Global Standards Collaboration (GSC) to contribute for sharing the views of SDOs and for information exchange on ITS Cooperative Systems.

Regarding the coordination of the standardization activities, ARIB will consider encouragement of closer relations with SDOs, and Vehicle Communication Systems (VCS) International WG in ITS Info-Communications Forum will discuss the issue.

In this presentation, the relevant activities above will be introduced. With that, the presenter would like to provide an opportunity for discussions on the coordination of the standardization activities.
Managing interoperability to deliver the required customer service for cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
Nigel Wall
(Shadow Creek Solutions)

Scene setting

Cooperative ITS, where vehicles share information with each other and with infrastructure based systems is expected to deliver major improvements to road safety, efficiency, comfort and the impact of transport on the environment. Cooperative ITS includes the automatic generation of normal status and hazard warnings in order to derive various forms of driver assistance. E.g. a vehicle that detects a low-friction surface will warn other vehicles in the area. Vehicles that receive the warning will respond appropriately, possibly by reducing speed, or limiting the torque through the driving wheels as well as advising the driver. Vehicles approaching junctions will be warned of any other vehicle that appears to be ignoring a stop signal, to prevent an accident.

We have seen major investment in proof of concept demonstrators in Europe, America, Japan and Korea. Standards are being developed in ISO, ETSI, CEN, IEEE, IETF, etc. These standards are intended to allow interoperability, yet to allow individual manufacturers to include product differentiation.

How should interoperability be assured?

• By conformance testing to ensure that all the standards are met
• Interoperability testing will be needed for a representative set of operations. Ideally each vehicle would be tested against every other vehicle. If this is not done then there remains a risk that there may be an incompatibility. In practice it is not possible to test every permutation, so a small risk remains.
• Customer Service Management (CSM) will be required. CSM will oversee the provision of a whole range of services including configuration management; access rights to third party services (including local communications networks); fault identification; fault tracking, analysis, mitigation and correction.

Customer Service Management

Work on communications standards has concentrated on ITS Station to ITS Station interaction, typically via an unmanaged, ad hoc, direct communication using the ETSI G5 or US DSRC comms at 5.9GHz, infrared, or 63 GHz. However, there will be occasions when an ad hoc communication will involve a network that must be paid for – possibly via satellite, or a local authority roadside G5 access point. CSM will include a MVNO role, brokering the payment with each individual network. There has been very little work on the provision of CSM.

CSM will play an important part in the determination of liability, should things go wrong. The European ITS Directive on ITS 2010/40/EC defines the resolution of liability as one of 24 key actions. More importantly the CSM will identify and analyse problems that occur without causing an accident or other loss. This information will need to be shared with the manufacturers of other ITS systems so that remedial action can be applied to the systems that are causing the problem.

CSM requirements need to be defined and agreed, so that the necessary diagnostic and management interfaces and data caching will be included at the required points within the ITS Station. In practice there are likely to be many customer service managers that will need to cooperate seamlessly.

This paper seeks to stimulate interest in this essential part of the overall ITS.
Convergence of car connectivity
Bernadette Villeforceix
(Orange) and Stéphane Petti (Orange)

Future ITS applications will require cars to be connected to other cars and the infrastructure. Such connectivity can be achieved thanks to cellular networks or by relying on a dedicated car to car and car to infrastructure communication.

At first, in this paper, the current car to car communication protocols under standardization will be studied. In brief, to outline the heritage of ETSI ITS reference architecture, the following quotes are to be listed : management block coming from ISO CALM, access layer including IEEE 802.11p, network layer coming from C2C consortium. Both ETSI ITS and ISO CALM architectures are composed of ISO layer blocks (access, network and transport, facilities and application layers) plus transverse management entity to manage cross layer functions and security entities.

Access Layer: among the different access network technologies considered in ITS systems : IR, GSM/EDGE, 3G/HSPA, millimetric wave…, a european profile, with PHY and MAC layers directly derived from IEEE802.11p, is defined to support adhoc communications in the 5.9GHz frequency band, with dedicated frequency range allocated to control and service channels. This profile has also been adopted by ISO CALM and is named CALM M5;

Network protocols: ITS application scenarios (safety and/or traffic efficiency) requiring single or multi-hop communications are enabled by geographical routing based on ITS dedicated network protocol; these ITS network protocols –ETSI geonetworking protocol for single and multi-hop communications and CALM FAST protocol that only support single hop communications- are responsible for addressing and routing functions to manage short, quick and efficient adhoc communications based on short range wireless technology, without help of a coordinating infrastructure. Different geographical routing schemes are defined for ITS communications: geographical unicast, geographical broadcast and topological scoped broadcast supported by one or multi hops links.

In the presentation we propose to discuss further the different layers of ITS communications protocols under standardization with a focus on Ipv6 features that both standards implement for mobility management in particular NEMO (Network Mobility) basic support protocol (RFC 3963), MCoA Multiple Care-of Addresses (draft-ietf-monami6-multiplecoa) for ETSI and ISO.

In a second part, we will address deployment aspects of ITS cooperative networks. Such deployement will require network planning, network operation and coordination processes where the network operator with its experience will be an essential contributor for getting a complete success. In the same idea, the V2V communications, if not organized, could meet some problems with channel interference if the frequency allocation plan is not considered as an issue. From a telecommunication network operator point of view, having the knowledge of an optimized management of radio resources, we will discuss on how to ensure the guarantee of the performance of this cooperative network, for both P2P and P2M communications.

Deployment will require on the other hand concrete hardware solution that can cope with several communication protocol. We will discuss the approach of a onboard mobile router that can provide this multi bearer connectivity, and aggregate the available bandwidth provided by multiple access networks and all hosts (passengers of the vehicle) share the bandwidth to communicate with ground servers or other vehicles, this access scheme being more efficient to reduce the impact of new services than leaving individual access requests initiated by each passenger of the vehicle.

Finally, we will present an Orange Labs approach for such mobile router for the optimised management of radio resources with an effective and dynamic QoS policy to fulfill a strong requirement in network congestion control and will put into perspective the convergence of ITS communication protocols with the future LTE cellular communication protocol.
ITU: International Telecommunication Union (
ISO: International Organization for Standardization (
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission (


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