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Home : ITU-T Home : Workshops and Seminars : Workshop on ICT in Vehicles
 The Fully Networked Car Workshop
 PALEXPO, Geneva, 4 - 5 March 2009 Contact:  

Workshop on ICTs in Motor Vehicles, 4-5 March 2009
Fully Network Car logo


Wednesday, 4 March 2009
10:00 – 10:15 Opening session
Welcome Address Malcolm Johnson, Director, Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (ITU-T)
Opening remarks Kevin McKinley, Deputy Secretary-General, ISO
Opening remarks Jack Sheldon on behalf of Aharon Amit, IEC General Secretary
10:15 – 12:15 Executive session

Moderator: Hans Gierlich, Head Acoustics GmbH
How cars communicate with their environment Burkhard Göschel, CTO Vehicles & Powertrain Group Magna International,
Chairman to the Grand Prix Manufacturers Association (GPMA),
Chairman to the Formula 1 Manufacturers Advisory Committee

In Formula 1 a lot of communication between cars and their pits take place. Different functions like tire pressure, chassis data or also analysis of engine data in terms of performance and lifetime are communicated via telemetry. An efficient and above all secure race progress without all these sorts of communication would not be imaginable nowadays.

Passenger cars, driven by governmental regulation and the daily call for more safety, more and more develop in the direction of racing cars in terms of telemetry.Car2car communication or car2infrastructure communication are the terms that dominate the electronic engineering offices of worldwide leading OEMs and suppliers. The car becomes the link between sensor and actuating elements, where these elements melt to ECUs. New sensors plus the new access to external information with electrified actuating elements allow a new level of vehicle intelligence. The driver gets supported through new integrated information systems like head units. One major goal of all these developments is to improve active safety. The challenge will be in the next couple of years to reduce the cost of the new system by new technologies and integration.
Vehicle Communication to Help the Environment T. Russell Shields, Chairman, Ygomi

With consensus about climate change growing among consumers and regulators, there is increased attention to vehicle technologies with potential to reduce CO2 and other fuel-related emissions. Vehicle communications technologies (i.e., vehicle telematics) hold great promise to support more environmentally friendly vehicles, both by supporting cleaner-fuel vehicles (e.g., electronic vehicles) with data and voice services that can help increase their appeal and prevalence, and by supporting all vehicles with data applications that can help reduce fuel usage. Perhaps most promising, telematics applications such as fuel usage tracking with probe data can lead to fuel usage regulations and technologies based on real-world driving conditions, with lower development costs and improved monitoring and enforcement. All the technology needed for these solutions already exists, and the in-vehicle technology has been tested extensively. The remaining steps are for governments to allocate the radio bandwidth for data transmission, and for a qualified operator to be put in place to build out the necessary network.
ITS as a new market for telecommunication in Ubiquitous ICT Tadao Saito, CTO, Toyota InfoTechnology Center
Ubiquitous connectivity to improve urban mobility Hermann Meyer, CEO, ERTICO (ITS Europe)
“Aria Nuova” Project and the scientific activities of Monza autodrome Ivan Capelli, F1 driver, Monza Research Institute

“Autodromo Nazionale Monza" is not only a symbol of worldwide motor competitions, but is now also a centre for spreading information on what companies are developing and producing in motor sport and innovation and a place where such activities can have practical experimentation.

“Aria Nuova” is the name of the project born to carry on this new image of Monza Circuit. The first edition of Aria Nuova was held at “Autodromo Nazionale Monza” from 12th till the 15th June 2008, with the aim of creating a meeting point between research and scientific development, entertainment and sport competition. “Eco-sustainability and progress together for the environment” summarizes the contents as well as the current events. Atmospheric pollution, dust, Co2, greenhouse effect are real matters on which we have to think over every day.

"Aria Nuova" is an extraordinary event, with a diversified and complete programme. Its unique format enables to promote the mature market of eco-cars as well as to accompany researchers of energy production technology towards the EXPO 2015.

The second edition will take place from the 11th till the 14th June 2009. Conventions will be held throughout Thursday, Friday and Saturday, followed by entertaining initiatives on Saturday and Sunday. The event will end with the 2nd FIA Trophy Aria Nuova – a competition dedicated to ecological vehicles.

Aria Nuova is a project included in the scientific activities of Monza Circuit, managed by Monza Research Institute, a reseach center that works in particular on four different areas:

- environmental protection, with the following objectives:

1. creation of a facility for the testing of fuels and innovative propulsion systems (biofuels, biogas, hydrogen, hydrogen-methane mixtures, etc.)
2. collaboration with the Joint Research Center of the European Commission for the construction of facilities to monitor and control energy and the environment, as already experienced with Aria Nuova 2008.
3. insertion into the car fleet of the circuit, of prototypes powered with new fuels
4. implementation of laboratories to study the research for new solutions for mobility

- Road Pricing, Reduce Pollution,Traffic Management and Fleet Management

- Drivers medical safety

- road safety, in collaboration with universities and companies involved with research projects aimed at optimizing the integration between different types of vehicles (buses and cars) and the different types of energy absorption barriers to be placed on road infrastructure.
12:15 – 14:00 Lunch
14:00 – 15:30 Session 1: Fully Networked Car and Climate Change

Moderator: Denis Griot, Freescale Semiconductor Inc.
How Standards contribute to the challenges of climate changes – Electric car as a model for sustainability Ziva Patir, Better Place, Global Standards, Regulations and Compliance
Efficient Parking: A service enabler for ITS with positive impact on climate change Bruno Verplancken, Neopark
Outstanding Innovation in Automotive Networking Marc Osajda, Freescale, Semiconductor, Inc.

For today’s global transportation industry, tightening standards on vehicle emissions and population awareness of climate change have intensified the demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles. Automotive semiconductor innovations have helped the industry dramatically improve engine fuel consumption, performance, vehicle safety and driver comfort. Further steps to reduce emissions will require a significant electrification of the car to eliminate bulky mechanical and hydraulic systems and enable the downsizing of the internal combustion engine by providing electrical traction capabilities.

These changes will increase the number of intelligent node in the car and also create new challenges in terms of power and signal distribution, leading to an increased in-vehicle networking complexity resulting in an unwanted weight and cost increase.

New in-vehicle networking architecture will have to be conceived based on domain controller concepts and centralized gateways to distribute the information to all necessary "users" in the car.

This paper will also explore the possibility to develop wireless in-vehicle network for a variety of sensing, actuating and connectivity applications and the potential need for standardization.
15:30 – 16:00 Coffee break
16:00 – 18:00 Session 2: Car-to-“X” Communication, Part I

Moderator: James Gover, IEEE
Towards a European Solution for Networked Cars - Integration of Car-to-Car technology into cellular systems for vehicular communication in Europe Yunpeng Zang, RWTH Aachen University; Sabine Sories, Ericsson Research; Guido Gehlen, Ericsson Research; Bernhard H. Walke, RWTH Aachen University

The ability of improving safety and efficiency of current transportation systems makes Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) or Car-to-Car (C2C) communication technology an essential component of future Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) worldwide. The recently approved 30 MHz spectrum at 5.9 GHz for vehicular communication in Europe was a milestone towards the rollout of a European vehicular communication system.

So far, most of the research efforts are focusing on the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) based ad-hoc C2C technology, i.e., the IEEE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) system. The WAVE system is able to provide broadband local communications with very low latency, in short to medium communication range, and with a flexible ad-hoc network structure. These characteristics are perfect for active safety applications, such as wireless local hazard warnings, vehicle maneuvering assistance or cooperative automatic cruise control. Our study has shown that WAVE technology meets the communication requirements in most of the scenarios, on highway and inside city, with over-crowded or sparse road traffic, given sufficient market penetration rate and supports from road side equipments.

Although the C2C system could work autonomously in ad-hoc mode, infrastructure is necessary to implement security mechanisms for safety applications. Furthermore, infrastructure is needed to realize typical infotainment services. And finally, infrastructure is also helpful to reach a high market penetration rate of the C2C devices. Ad-hoc networks require a certain minimum penetration rate to make the network work, whereas an infrastructure based system is technically functional from the first user. Thus, with a mere ad-hoc C2C scenario the system introduction seems to be tough. Therefore, a WAVE infrastructure has been proposed.

However, in Europe, cellular systems like GPRS, UMTS and HSPA provide almost full coverage. Instead of deploying a dedicated WAVE based roadside communication infrastructure, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) funded research project Cooperative Car (CoCar) develops and investigates a cellular based solution for vehicular safety and comfort applications. The cellular based solution has proved to be very efficient in disseminating messages and providing location-based services with wide range, compared to the ad-hoc C2C technology. But it has also been observed that the network delay and system capacity of cellular system constrain the performance in supporting very time critical safety applications in vehicular environments.

Therefore, we propose a hybrid C2X solution combing the ad-hoc C2C communication technology and the infrastructure based cellular system benefiting from advantages of both technologies. It is expected that the ad-hoc C2C technology assures good performance supporting time critical safety applications in a small to medium range, and the infrastructure enables information distribution in medium and large range, security mechanisms and other infrastructure based services. In addition, the cellular communication enables the C2X introduction, and thus boosts the market penetration of WAVE devices without deploying a completely new infrastructure system of road-side units (RSUs).

This work has been partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF) under the grant 01BU0690. The authors are responsible for the content of this publication.

Index Terms:

Inter-Vehicle Communications (IVC), Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), Cellular System, UMTS, GPRS, HSDPA, LTE, IEEE 802.11p
Architecture and Technology for Adaptive Multi-hop V2V Networking in Dynamic Environments Wai Chen, Telcordia Technologies and Toyota InfoTechnology Center

Recently there have been much efforts to integrate communications and computing technologies into vehicular and transportation systems. The goal of these efforts is to improve driving safety, reduce congestion, and enable other applications by using vehicle communications capabilities. Vehicle communication performance requirements include low latency, high message delivery ratio, and data security in order to support vehicle applications. Further, the roadway environment is highly dynamic and thus communication protocols need to overcome topology-related issues, influenced by mobility and the wireless communications conditions as well as lack of inherent relationships among vehicles.

In this paper, we will discuss some recent results in developing architecture and technology for adaptive multi-hop V2V networking in dynamic roadways. We will first outline some safety and convenience applications and briefly review a dynamic vehicle group communications architecture. We will then highlight key technical approaches of adaptive vehicle group networking (e.g., architecture and control policies for adapting vehicle networking operations, environment awareness techniques) in order to help achieve efficient and reliable communications in highly-dynamic roadway environments. Finally, we will present preliminary analytical results on adaptive vehicle network behaviors and tradeoffs.
Use of Satellite Communication in ITS Adam Brzozowski, Avanti Communications

Today, satellites play a key role in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Because Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), mainly USA’s GPS, Russian’s GLONASS and EU’s GALILEO, are globally covered, all-weather, real-time, they are substantially used in navigation, vehicle and cargo tracking, location based services, fleet management, etc. In many transport systems and services GNSS involved with, communication is essential. For example, a vehicle tracking system requires location information provided by GNSS and a communication channel which is able to report the location information to a monitoring centre. However, while positioning services rely on satellite based systems, communications still heavily depend on terrestrial communication networks such as GSM and WiFi. Since terrestrial communication networks have different coverage and availability, in many cases, terrestrial communication cannot meet the requirement, e.g. global coverage. Therefore, this is an opportunity for deployment of satellite communication in ITS, particularly in GNSS related ITS services.

Satellite communication can be used for downstream link broadcast and two-way communication. Broadcast service can be used for traveller information services, such as weather and traffic information dissemination, provision of information on Points of Interests (POI), etc. Since satellite broadcast service is able to deliver a large size of data for a wide coverage at a potentially cheaper price than the existing terrestrial services, it can be used for broadcasting large size data such as digital map updates and on-board unit software updates.

Two-way satellite communication can be used for ITS services which require comprehensive communication coverage, e.g. fleet management in a wide area or high reliability of communication, e.g. emergency Call (eCall) services. Many of fleet management system providers in Europe, the U.S.A and Canada now integrate satellite communication in their on-board unit since ordinary coverage of GSM might not be reached in some areas. While some fleet management systems use satellite communication as the single communication solution, others use an integrated antenna for satellite communication and GNSS in their on-board units.

Benefits of using satellites for communication can be::
- ubiquitous coverage
- instant infrastructure
- independent of terrestrial infrastructure

The ubiquitous coverage can close gaps of terrestrial network. The instant infrastructure and independency of terrestrial infrastructure make satellite communication easy to implement. Satellite communication will have no roaming issues that can make many pan-European services cheaper and easier to deploy than use of terrestrial communication.
SDR-Based Methodology for On-Board Communications Systems Design Asier Alonso Muñoz, TECNALIA-TELECOM

In recent years, the vehicle paradigm has undergone a complete revolution. In a field traditionally isolated from the communication point of view, aspects such as safety, comfort and interaction with the environment have been significantly improved thanks to the introduction of wireless technologies. These technologies increasingly tend to coexist integrated in a single, multi-purpose on-board device and in order to fit these requirements, there is a need to find innovative ways of designing which allow reducing the required hardware components and, therefore, implementation costs. Additionally, the existing time mismatch between the evolution of communications technologies and the lifecycle of vehicles may be a handicap for the adoption of on-board equipment by users. It has been stated that communications devices get obsolete in a few years and have to be replaced by newer ones, able to support innovative services. It is, thus, needed a new reconfigurable architecture which allows on-board communications equipment to evolve seamlessly towards new communication standards.

In order to meet these goals, our work is focused on the design of an innovative architecture for onboard communication units based on new technologies for wireless systems and specifically adapted for the vehicular environment. From this very general aim three main objectives have been outlined:
  1. To choose a new design methodology for wireless systems which can integrate communication standards and heterogeneous networks coexisting in a single device, adding also reconfiguration capabilities.
  2. To design a new architecture for on-board units, based on this methodology and adapted to the VANET environment.
  3. To implement a new signal processing algorithm in order to reduce the amount of hardware components required.
Following this approach, firstly, the feasibility of Software Defined Radio (SDR) to integrate all the communication waveforms required for vehicular applications and to enable reconfiguration capabilities has been analyzed. Then, a proposal for an SDR-based hardware architecture specifically adapted for on-board terminals has been sketched, which may constitute a basis for the development of cognitive radio systems in VANETs. Finally, a signal processing algorithm, which makes use of direct digitization, has been defined, implemented and tested. It allows some hardware components to be replaced by a digital front-end, providing greater flexibility to the SDR implementation and increasing system performance.
The .car approachh Arnaud de Meulemeester, ATX Europe GmbH GmbH

Through this workshop the audience will:
- Have a short introduction about ATX
- Have an overview of the ATX vision on telematics especially for Europe
- Understand the advantages to have the World Wide Web into the vehicle
- Get the idea behind the concept of .car

.car is an ATX initiative within the Connected Vehicle Trade Association (CVTA)

ATX, telematics technology since 1996
ATX is one of the world’s leading providers of customized telematics services to global automobile manufacturers. ATX services, among the first to be launched in the consumer vehicle market back in 1996, are provided to vehicle owners through the brand names of its customers: BMW, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Mercedes-Benz, Maybach, and Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. Services by ATX provide enhanced safety, security and driving convenience to vehicle owners, and include location-specific emergency and roadside assistance, automatic collision notification, stolen vehicle recovery, remote diagnostics, and real-time traffic and navigation assistance. ATX also customizes services to help automobile manufacturers and their affiliated dealerships use telematics data and multiple customer contact channels to reduce costs, enhance vehicle servicing, and more closely manage customer relationships. ATX is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cross Country Automotive Services (

The in-vehicle communications environment is rapidly evolving
New devices, software and functionalities are converging, which creates challenges for automobile manufacturers designing vehicle cockpits with safety considerations, ergonomic requirements, driving expectations and the brand experience of vehicle owners in mind.

Integration of the Word Wide Web into the vehicle
For many, the Internet has become a common part of everyday life. It has become integrated into our lifestyle: how we learn, how we work, and how we interact and build our social network. The browsing experience continually improves, with applets and widgets that enable even novice users to navigate and customize content. The car environment requires special adoptions:

• Appropriate interfaces for drivers to input information (e.g., touch screen, voice recognition)?
• Specific presentation of the (Internet) information (via view screen, converted from text to speech, audio files)
• Standards (restrictions) to ensure safe driving during use (no distraction)
• Mandatory firewall and anti-virus components to protect the .car environment
• Respect of the data privacy aspects

Proposed .car approach
The .car approach establishes a common platform for use by OEMs, Tier 1 and Tier 2 equipment providers, content providers, with an initial emphasis on the way information is presented from the Internet and used within the car. The .car architecture relies on three components:

• A (standardized) embedded browser in the vehicle
• connected automobiles
• Web sites specifically designed (enhanced) for the automobile environment

Web sites using the .car extension will not only take device appearance and specific size into account, but also will include specific add-ons that will enable Web site designers to create automotive embedded applications. These enhancements will enable the Web sites to comply with mandatory specific automotive and human machine interface requirements, to ensure safety and support the overall driving experience.
.car sites will also be able to make use of data points specific to the embedded automotive browsing experience: vehicle data, location data and vehicle status.
OEMs can control (or limit) the sites that can be accessed from their vehicles or can modify them in a brand specific manner according to style and security rules through filters or proxies.

.car advantages
The flexible .car approach allows the creation of web based applications that can easily adopt to the actual situation of the driver and the car. The car requests .car web sites by transmitting information in a standardized way concerning the current situation of the car (location, speed, driving situation, band width …) and the ability of the devices in the car to reproduce the content of web sites (text2speech, sound files, graphics, …). Using this information for instance traffic information can be presented in a way that a maximum of information can be transmitted while minimizing the attention the driver has to invest in getting the information.

The ultimate vision would be to give the driver and passenger the ability to access the Internet, with the browser inside the automobile, and the services, customization and content offered by the OEM (or adapted / approved by the OEM) within the time to market speed of the Internet.
Thursday, 5 March 2009
09:30 – 11:30 Session 3: Car-to-“X” Communication, Part II

Moderator: James Gover, IEEE
3G car gateways – The heart of Advanced Driver Solutionss Herbert Scheitler, Wavecom

For the last decade, there has been a growing realization that any sustainable transportation system must balance the cornerstones of the so-called magic triangle: Mobility, Safety & security, and Environment.

Besides traffic information & management, demand management and public transport management on a collective level, wireless technology can also offer advanced driver solutions on an autonomous (individual) level. Cooperative systems such as car-to-car (C2C) and car-to-infrastructure (C2I), plus world-wide ongoing e-call activities, provide additional support to individual mobility and safety.

Advanced Driver Solutions support the driver by
- providing comfort and assistance for efficient driving
- offering remote maintenance and service capabilities
- giving easy access to information and entertainment worldwide
- improving safety & security for all road users
- offering comprehensive information for smoother and more predictable journeys.

A 3G Car Gateway (figure 1) can be the heart of such advanced driver solutions in a “fully networked car”.

Practical demonstration:

The practical demonstration illustrates a wireless car gateway which provides an integrated solution for
- Wifi to GRPS
- Wifi to CAN (for remote diagnostic)
- FTP (for uploading large files at hot spots)

IP communication in the car: an Ecosystem Enablers? Jean-Marie Bonnin, Institut TELECOM /TELECOM Bretagne

The recent boom in wireless networks technologies and the diversification of the network-enabled devices opened the way to a lot of network-based services. In a very near future, users will expect to be permanently connected to the Internet no matter where they are, and especially in cars and public transportation.

Nevertheless, current technologies does not allow these small-sized devices to have more than one or two wireless interfaces due to energy consumption, size and cost issues. Therefore, these devices would not benefit from the diversity offered by the availability of various wireless access technologies. Moreover these type of tiny devices are not supposed to be able to manage their own mobility and to maintain an ubiquitous access to the Internet. However, considering the problem otherwise, one can notice that these devices are often used in environments such as personal vehicles and public transportation systems. Those environments can manage the ubiquitous access issues on behalf of the devices and provide them with a stable and easy-to-use access network (e.g. Wi-Fi or Bluetooth).

To provide ubiquitous access to the Internet into vehicles, several aspects have to be studied in order to handle a seamless mobility through multiple access networks. A first step was the design of the NEMO (NEtwork MObility) Basic Support protocol by the IETF. The NEMO approach introduces the notion of Mobile Routers (MR) which will be part of modern vehicles and manage all complexities related to multi-interfaces and seamless mobility management. Real experiments conducted over wireless networks currently in commercial operation (e.g. GPRS, UMTS, CDMA2000, WiMax, WiFi) indicate that this kind of link suffer from several problems such as high and variable round trip times, burst of packet losses, frequent link outages, and significantly lower bandwidth than originally claimed. In other words, it seams that there is currently no wireless technology able to offer an adequate level of seamless connectivity without non affordable deployment and operational costs. In this context the most viable solution is to exploit what one call the “network diversity”. A node considers all reachable wireless networks as a mean to be connected to the Internet.

In this heterogeneous world, it becomes possible to use simultaneously a combination of several networks, each of them being optimized for some particular service or for a particular geographical situation. This results in a system that should dynamically deliver each service via the network that is most efficient for that service in the current situation. The complexity of such a decision could not be afforded by tiny devices, therefore they have to collaborate with the decision point in the network on-board. It is then necessary to standardize a protocol between embarked equipments and mobile routers to allow the development of an ecosystem.

In this talk, we first give a short introduction explaining why IPv6 is doubtless the only way to benefit from the Internet flexibility to ease the development of various services (from security to infotainment). Then we describe how the IP networking fit in the CALM architecture designed at ISO TC 204 WG 16. The main part of the talk deals with the network diversity (multihoming) management and gives an overview of the works done at standardization bodies and in the academic world. Will finish the chapter giving some insights into two French collaborative projects: the REMORA project which has designed a networking architecture and proposes solutions for some functionality that are missing in the IETF standards, the LoCoSS project provides emergency services with a prototype of an IPv6 Mobile Router to experiment the use of public networks for experimental enhanced services.  
The challenge of state-of-the-art vehicle communication - FlexRay for the Masses Rainer Makowitz; Christopher Temple; Matthias Rausch, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

After the introduction of FlexRay in several automotive series projects the experience gained in using this new technology in practise has been spawning a few critical enhancements. We will present the topics and use cases that have been driving the discussion for Flexray 3.0 as well as the solutions that are currently being added to the FlexRay standard.
LBS Voice services: maximizing revenues, quality & speed through distributed call centres and server based speech recognition Julien Masson, Connexis
Vehicle gateway platform and signalling protocols for seamless interaction between networks and devices Yushi Naito, Chairman, ITU-T Study Group 16, (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation)

The growing demands for the Car Communications require the vehicle as a part of a network. A vehicle fully networked inside and outside will provide the benefit of ubiquitous applications through telecommunications. ITU-T SG16, the Lead Study Group on multimedia coding, systems and applications, on ubiquitous applications ("e-everything", such as e-health) and on telecommunication/ICT accessibility for persons with disabilities, has currently launched two projects for Car Communications.

Question 27, titled “Vehicle gateway platform for telecommunication/ITS services/applications” is newly established in Working Party 2 of ITU-T SG16, started its studies on the requirements in terms of services and functions to support V2V and V2I, on the functions of vehicle gateway and its reference model(s) , on the open interface between in-vehicle network and ICT devices and on the relevant necessary protocols to support vehicle oriented services/applications. The group has started the discussion on the ToR of their works, and identified the urgent needs for the standardization of 1) the interface between the In-vehicle Network and Vehicle Gateway, 2) wireless/wired communication interface between Vehicle Gateway and ICT devices and 3) the interface between Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication, should required to be standardized.

Question 18 titled “Interaction aspects of signal processing network equipment” is a Question of Working Party 1, which has been studying dynamic coordination of Signal Processing Network Equipment to achieve optimal speech quality, and has agreed to enhance its scope of work, in response to the request from ITU-T FG-FITCAR, not to be limited within the network, but to include terminal equipments to provide better speech quality end-to-end. The dynamic coordination mechanism to attain optimal speech quality avoids the tandeming of multiple signal processing functions of the same type exist in end-to-end connection, including the connection from vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to land terminal.

In pursuit of these two ultimate goals, SG16 has recognized the importance of collaboration with other SDOs and Fora to make these technologies timely standardized to the demand of growing market. This paper provides the information on two projects SG16 is currently undertaking for Car Communication, and cordially invites all the parties and their engineers concerned to participate in and to collaborate with our standardization activities for the evolution of Car Communications.
11:30 – 12:00 Coffee break
12:00 – 13:30 Session 4: Safety and Security

Moderator: Bernard Dugerdil, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Risks of the Networked Car - Intrusion Detection for Improved Automotive Security Michael Müter, Daimler AG

Today’s vehicles are becoming more and more complex and can comprise more than 60 electronic control units, different automotive networks and domains, gateways and numerous internal and external interfaces. This includes wired interfaces like USB, CD/DVD or SD cards, but also wireless interfaces like Bluetooth, GSM or UMTS. Moreover, vehicular systems for C2C and C2X communication are on the verge of deployment and promise to offer tremendous benefits for driving safety, efficiency and comfort. Hence, the general development for the automotive architecture is a shift from a closed structure to a more and more open and exposed system.

Within the scope of this development the risk that attackers try to get access to the automotive system is increasing constantly. For example, an adversary could try to use the various communication interfaces in order to break into the vehicular network and inject malicious data which interferes with the normal operation of the vehicle. Or, an adversary could try to get access to personal user information stored in the car, like address-book entries, calendar items or navigation data. Without built-in security measures the vehicular system of the future is highly prone to attacks.

This paper tackles the security concept of future automobiles. Vehicles, in contrast to desktop computers, are in use for over 10, sometimes more than 20 years in different conditions and locations. Therefore, it may not be possible to consider all attacks at a development point of time which may arise during this long lifespan. Hence, in addition to preventive measures, a reactive solution is required which can respond to potential attacks and react to threats even during the operation of the vehicle.

In this paper we show how to improve the automotive security concept by introducing a dedicated Intrusion Detection System (IDS). We explain why security is an inevitable constituent of a fully networked car and present vehicular intrusion detection as one approach to mitigate the growing risks. We illustrate, why an exclusive focus on preventive security measures is not sufficient in the future and how intrusion detection can ease this issue. Moreover, we describe concepts of a prototype for a vehicular IDS and highlight the current research challenges which come along with this approach.  
Secure Vehicular Communication Systems: Towards Deployment Panos Papadimitratos, SeVeCom

With the integration of on-board computing units and radios for vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to road-side infrastructure (V2I) communication, Vehicular Communication (VC) systems will enhance transportation safety and efficiency. V2V communication enables real-time safety applications, extending the driver's horizon, while V2V and V2I communication enable a multitude of applications that collect and disseminate information from and to the vehicles. However, the rich set of tools VC offer can abused: for example, attackers could announce non-existent dangerous or congested road conditions, misleading drivers and causing traffic jams; or drivers could modify their cars to transmit messages as emergency vehicles (ambulances, police cars) and illegitimately have free passage, as unsuspected drivers slow down and yield. Similarly, attackers could record transmissions from by-passing vehicles to later trace their location and infer private information about their passengers (e.g., celebrities, politicians).

Fortunately, it is now well-understood in the community that security and protection of privacy are a prerequisite for the deployment of VC. Otherwise, VC systems could be abused, disrupted or disabled even by relatively unsophisticated attackers. A major effort has been undertaken by EPFL’s LCA1, notably as part of the European project SeVeCom, now at the final stages of completing the design of a security architecture for VC and the implementation of a proof of concept demonstrator (Note: they will be both completed at the time of the Workshop). A spectrum of mechanisms has been developed, to address primarily identity and cryptographic key management, privacy protection, secure communication, and in-car protection.

An outline of those mechanisms and the protection they offer, along with evidence of their practicality, will be given at the first part of the talk. Regarding the latter aspect, an overview of the contribution by EPFL to the first large field demonstration by the Car to Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC) will be provided. This will illustrate the challenge and the importance of achieving an interoperable security solution. Next, standardization efforts on VC security and privacy mechanisms will be overviewed. Finally, with the latest on all three fronts of research, implementation, and standardization outlined, an identification and discussion of remaining challenges towards deployment will conclude the presentation.  
An Integrated Navigation/Communication System – Meeting the requirements of the e-112 European Directive for In-Car Emergency Call Francesco Di Corpo, TeMa.Mobility Consortium

The enabling factors for new generation of in-car services is certainly based on a combination of both ICT specific technologies (communication and navigation) and a good framework of partnerships among companies belonging to the different sectors (ICT, Automotive, Electronic systems and Services).

As far as navigation systems are concerned, from one side Europe is investing on the Galileo program that will be a novel global navigation satellite system with advanced features that will complement and interoperate with the present GPS. Automotive applications are the second biggest market foreseen for Galileo (the first is mobile handsets). From the communication side several R&D activities are proposing innovative paradigms achieving car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure links (Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment – WAVE standard is one example) able to complement the present wireless systems.

Two important considerations can be then made. First NAV and COM have to achieve a better and optimized integration at the technology level. If the intent is to generate in-car services such integration needs to be managed by the technology supplier (electronics&telematics) of car manufacturers. Second the car will be wireless connected, and so the COM provider has to be involved in the design and deployment of in-car services.

With this aim Telecom Italia and Magneti Marelli created at the end of 2007 the Tema.mobility Consortium with the specific objective of exploiting all possible benefits coming from the integration of one automotive company and an ICT company.

On the top of this Tema.mobility decided to create a strong partnership with Istituto Superiore Mario Boella – ISMB also located in Torino that provides a deep expertise on both GPS and Galileo systems and applications.

Among the several in-vehicle services and applications that Tema.mobility will soon be able to deliver using innovative technologies, this paper will present the results of a concrete end-to-end application related to the emergency call. The eCall project has been set up by Tema.mobility and ISMB in order to manage Emergency calls coming from vehicles or mobile phones using wireless technologies with the objective of significantly reduce road deaths and injuries.

ECall, in the context of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), is the notification to Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP) by means of wireless communications, of a vehicle crash and implies the transmission of the necessary coordinates, Minimu Set of Data (MSD) to localize the vehicle.

The system tema.mobility and ISMB have jointly developed is composed by the following elements:

• The new Telematic-Box (T-BOX) designed and manufactured by Magneti Marelli mounting a specific firmware version of ISMB;
• The VT&T server platform of Telecom Italia;
• The PSAP web application.

The final paper will describe in detail how the service is set up, the key technology elements, the strategy for the service provision and the results of the test campaign. Soon this new added-value application will be available for vehicle equipped with the T-BOX.

Figure 1 eCall system architecture
13:30 – 14:30 Lunch
14:30 – 15:00 Executive session
  Jürgen Leohold, Executive Director, Group Research, Volkswagen
15:00 – 16:30 Session 5: Voice and audiovisual services

Moderator: Jean-Yves Monfort, France Telecom/Orange
Speech communication in cars goes wideband – the new ITU-T Focus Group CarCom Hans Gierlich, Head Acoustics GmbH

After having successfully completed a new standard on narrowband communication in cars and after adaption of this proposal as an ITU T Recommendation in Study Group 12 the new focus group FG CarCom has started its work on a new draft on wideband speech communi-cation in cars. Wideband speech communication in cars is a very important and interesting topic since especially in cars the quality difference between high quality audio and the pure narrowband and distorted speech quality typically received by the mobile network is very obvious. Since mobile networks are moving towards wideband speech communication also the first wideband mobile terminals are available. A critical component is still wideband Blue-tooth transmission which is currently not yet standardized finally.

The presentation will give an overview about the activities of the work in FG CarCom. The influencing factors of wideband car communication both from the network as well as from the terminal point of view will be discussed.
Car Active Noise Cancellation for improved car efficiency, From/In/To car voice communication and music listening experience Jean-Pierre Jallet, NXP Semiconductors

This paper discusses car active noise cancellation technology, i.e. reducing the noise present in the car cabin by playing anti-noise. Active noise cancellation principles are first presented. Then, the presentation focuses on car active noise cancellation by explaining:

• The specific problematic of noise in the car.
• The motivation to use active noise cancellation instead of passive countermeasures.
• The benefit of active noise cancellation for car, i.e. improvement of the car efficiency, reduction of the emissions, improvement of From/In/To cars voice communication and improvement of the audio listening experience in the car.

Finally, car active noise cancellation state of the art algorithms are presented and car active noise cancellation specificities are addressed:

• The characteristics of the car cabin noise.
• The causes of the car cabin noise.
• The active noise cancellation technologies needed to cancel the different car cabin noises depending on the noises causes.
• The typical building blocks needed in a state of the art car active noise cancellation system.
• The cost issues linked to car active noise cancellation and solutions for cost effective car active noise cancellation.
• The integration of the car active noise cancellation system in the car and with the car audio system.
Wideband Speech Communications: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Scott Pennock, QNX Software Systems (Wavemakers) Inc.

Traditionally, speech communications over a telephone network has been narrowband (300-3400Hz). However, the historical reasons for transmitting narrowband no longer apply to today's digital networks.

Wideband (50-7000Hz) speech communications is coming online and it is just a matter of time before it becomes the most common way to communicate. Wideband speech has a lot of "Good" to offer. It can increase intelligibility, reduce driver distraction, create a better "sense of presence" (that is, sound more like face-to-face conversation), make it easier to identify the far-end talker, and help enable spatial auditory displays. Unfortunately, wideband speech also has the potential for some "Bad". People are more sensitive to wideband echo, and echo cancellers have a harder time with these signals. Noise is also more of an issue, since extending the frequency range allows more noise to be transmitted and users are more sensitive to this additional noise. To address these potential issues, vehicle platforms will require good electro-acoustic design, as well as high-performance acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) and noise reduction (NR) algorithms.

There is also the "Ugly". The switch to wideband won't happen overnight and a long transition period will likely ensue. Neither the standards community nor the telecommunications industry has addressed interoperability issues with existing narrowband systems - issues such as maintaining consistent loudness and quality over mixed connections.

Bandwidth extension techniques will become even more important in mixed connections. This paper will review the benefits, challenges, and unresolved issues with wideband speech communications in an automotive environment.
Automotive Speech Enhancement of Today: Applications, Challenges and Solutions Tim Haulick, Harman/Becker Automotive Systems GmbH

Speech communication in the vehicle environment is often difficult as the desired speech signal is superimposed by various interferers. This problem affects the uplink and downlink signal in a hands-free phone call, the voice input of a speech dialog system, as well as the communication between passengers in the vehicle itself. For this reason efficient speech enhancement technologies are required to ensure a reasonable speech quality and robust speech recognition. In recent years significant progress has been made in this area, especially due to the development of improved purpose-built algorithms. However, there is still need for improvement:

• Current noise reduction methods for instance often fail in high noise situations. As a result the processed speech signal often sounds thin and distorted.
• The benefit of standard beamformers used in vehicles is often rather limited due to the small number of available microphones.
• Due to the band limitation in the telephone network and the background noise level in the vehicle the received narrowband telephone signal is of low quality and often hard to understand.

The presentation will give a brief overview on recent developments in automotive speech enhancement, including solutions for the addressed problems. The presented methods will be illustrated on the basis of real-life applications and practical examples.
16:30 – 17:00 Wrap-up
Session highlights  
ITU: International Telecommunication Union (
ISO: International Organization for Standardization (
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission (
Supported by:  


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