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Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)
List of technical documents on fundamentals of Internationalized Domain Names and related issues
IDNA Standard
  • Fältström, P., Hoffman, P. and A. Costello, "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)", RFC 3490, March 2003.
  • Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)", RFC 3491, March 2003.
  • Costello, A., "Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for use with Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)", RFC 3492, March 2003.
  • Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of Internationalized Strings ("stringprep")", RFC 3454, December 2002.
IDNAbis issues IDN Registration guidelines Internationalising of TLDs IDN Security Issues
Unicode DNS essentials
  • Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.
  • Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.
  • Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989.
  • Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123, October 1989.
Software Tools
  • GNU Libidn is an implementation of the Stringprep, Punycode and IDNA specifications used for internationalized domain names. The C library is available under the GNU Lesser General Public License.
  • Internet Mail Consortium IDNA Test Tool provides an IDNA test interface and perl code to implement IDNA.
ITU Resolutions
  • Plenipotentiary Resolution 102 (rev. Marrakesh, 2002): Management of Internet Names and Addresses
  • Plenipotentiary Resolution 133 (Marrakesh, 2002): Role of administrations of Member States in the management of internationalized (multilingual) domain names
  • WTSA Resolution 48 (Florianópolis, 2004): Internationalized Domain Names
Other documents


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Updated : 2009-01-21