The growth of the service sector in national economies has brought telecommunications into the spotlight. The importance of
telecommunications as a service industry in itself as well as a critical support element for other service industries is now the
subject of high level policy formulation in practically every country in the world. This has led to changes such as the separation of telecommunication operations and regulations, privatisation of telecommunication operators and the introduction of competition. Interest in telecommunications now extends beyond engineers to include government officials, economists, lawyers, banks, users and the press.
The Telecommunication Indicator Handbook identifies and defines the most important indicators for analysis of the
telecommunication sector. Its goal is to assist the standardization of statistics to improve analysis and comparisons within and across countries and telecommunication operators.
Draft versions of this Handbook were discussed at the following meetings: OECD Working Party on Telecommunication and
Information Services Policies (Paris, February 1993), BDT Working Group on Telecommunication Development Indicators (Brasila,
October 1993) and EUROSTAT ICOBS/AS Working Group (Luxembourg, January 1994). The Handbook would not have been possible without the cooperation of the telecommunication regulators, operators and international agencies that provided valuable comments in these meetings. The Handbook has also considered indicators contained in the documents identified in the Bibliography.
1.1 Public telecommunications sector indicators
The purpose of the Handbook is to identify and define the most important indicators useful for analyzing the public
telecommunication sector. The term "Public telecommunication sector" refers to the telecommunications
infrastructure and services provided on this infrastructure for the public at large. This would include telecommunication networks (e.g., telephone, telex, telegraph, data) which consist of exchanges (switches) linked by transmission circuits that connect subscribers to each other and with subscribers abroad. Anyone can subscribe to the network; hence the term public which
refers to the access arrangement rather than the ownership of the network. The public telecommunications sector does not include
private networks (1) that do not automatically connect to the public network or which have limitations on membership. The public telecommunications sector also excludes telecommunications equipment manufacturing and broadcasting (2).
The Handbook provides a basic list of indicators that network operators and regulatory agencies should strive to collect and
disseminate. Definitions are included to assist telecommunications analysts as well as the growing number of non-specialists interested in telecommunications to understand the data. Guidelines are provided for those responsible for collecting and disseminating national statistics.
The list of indicators is shown in Table 1. The indicators are classified into different areas that provide a broad view of the
public telecommunication sector. Telephone network sizeand dimension shows parameters for what is typically the largest component of the telecommunications sector, the telephone network. The parameters measure the total size and the number of users, how modern the network is and the composition of the user base. Enhanced and other services shows subscribers of newer services such as mobile telephones and data networks as well as the long standing telex service. Quality of service measures the reliability of the telephone network. Traffic measures the usage of the telephone, telegram and telex networks both nationally and internationally. Tariffs show the costs to the subscriber for using telecommunications services. Staff shows the number of people employed in the public telecommunications sector. Revenue and costs show the income and costs associated with providing telecommunications services. Investment shows expenditure for expanding and modernizing the network.
Table 1: Telecommunication indicators
Telephone Network Size and Dimension
Telephone main lines in operation
Total capacity of local public switching exchanges
Main lines connected to digital exchanges
Main lines which are for residential use
Main lines in urban areas
Public pay phones
Number of telex subscribers
Cellular mobile telephone subscribers
Radio pager subscribers
Public data network subscribers
Quality of Service
Waiting list for main lines
Percentage of telephone service faults cleared by next working day
Percentage of calls which fail
Telephone main line faults
Percentage of calls for operator service answered within 15 seconds
Complaints per 1000 bills
Customer satisfaction rate
Local telephone traffic
National telephone traffic
International telephone traffic
International outgoing telegrams
National telex traffic
International outgoing telex traffic
Telephone service installation charge
Telephone service monthly subscription charge
National call charges
International call charges
Mobile communications charges
Leased line charges
Packet-switched data communications network charges
Total full-time staff in telecommunication services
Revenue and Costs
Total revenues from all telecommunication services of which:
Revenues from telephone service
Revenues from telephone connection charges
Revenues from telephone subscription charges
Revenues from local and national calls
Revenues from international calls
Revenues from telegrams and telex services
Revenues from other data/text services
Revenue from leased lines
Revenue from mobile communications services
Total expenditure for telecommunication services of which:
Net interest payments/receipts
Total annual investment in telecommunications, including land and buildings
Total annual investment in telecommunications, excluding land and buildings
Annual investment in research and development
Annual investment in telephone switching equipment
1.2 Reporting period
The indicators should be collected at least on an annual basis. Historical data should be retained for measuring trends and forecasting future demand. The use of a common reporting year (e.g., end of the calendar year) is desirable for comparative
purposes. While this is not always possible due to differing national practices, all the data should at least refer to the same end period to enhance the precision of derivations. For example, operational data and financial data should refer to the same end period to measure revenue per subscriber line accurately.
1.3 Demographic and macro-economic data
The list of indicators does not contain demographic or macro-economic statistics. These data are needed for gauging
telecommunications network penetration and the impact of telecommunications on the overall economy. Demographic and
macro-economic statistics are regularly collected and disseminated by national statistical agencies and economic and finance ministries as well as regional and international organizations (e.g., OECD, UN, World Bank, International Monetary Fund). Some of the main publications containing demographic and economic statistics are shown in the bibliography.
Demographic and macro-economic data useful for telecommunication analysis are described in Table 2:
Table 2: Demographic and macro-economic indicators
Population size is essential for measuring network penetration (e.g., telephone lines per 100 inhabitants). Number of
households and percentage of population in urban areas is also useful.
Useful for expressing telecommunications employment as a percentage of total employment.
Needed for converting financial data to a standard unit for inter-country comparisons such as the US dollar or the ECU. It is
preferable to use an average exchange rate since telecommunications financial operations typically accrue over a period of time. For tariff comparisons, it is preferable to use Purchasing Power Parties (PPPs) which compensate for the different cost of living between countries.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Useful for gauging the size of the telecommunications sector vis-a-vis the overall domestic economy (e.g., telecommunications revenues as a percent of GDP).
Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)
Useful for measuring the share of telecommunications investment to total investment in the economy (e.g., telecommunications investment as a percent of GFCF).
Inflation Price Index
Inflation price indices are useful for correcting financial data for the effects of inflation. Common prices indices include the consumer price index or the GDP deflator though for investment time-series it is preferable to use a GFCF Deflator.
1.4 Derived indicators
Derived statistics are not defined since these can be calculated from the primary indicators. For example, main lines per 100 inhabitants can be calculated from main lines and population, telecommunications staff per 1,000 main lines can be derived from full-time staff and main lines, etc. The most typical types of derivations used are identified in Table 3.
Table 3. Derived indicators
Main lines per 100 inhabitants
Main lines / Population * 100
The most widely used indicator for comparing the penetration of telephone service.
Employees per 1000 main lines
Employees / Main lines * 1000
The most widely used indicator for comparing staff productivity.
Telecom revenues as a per cent of GDP
Telecom revenues / GDP
Useful for comparing the size of the telecom sector to the overall economy.
Telecom investment as a per cent of GFCF
Telecom investment / GFCF
Useful for comparing the share of telecom investment to overall investment in the economy.
1.5 Aggregated indicators
The telecommunications indicators are useful for intra-country (when more than one national operator) as well as inter-country
comparisons. If there is more than one operator in a country, their results need to be added to obtain an overall total so that
international comparisons can be made (3). Common reporting periods and indicators (as contained in the list) are important for obtaining accurate country totals and enhancing transparency in comparisons.
The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) annual Yearbook provides a good example of how a country total can be obtained where there are many operators providing service. See Table 4.
Table 4. Aggregation Example
AT&T Communications Inc.
Seven Regional Bell Operating Companies
Other Reporting Local Exchange Companies
Total switched access lines
Total operating revenues (thousands of dollars)
Source: Adapted from FCC. Statistics of Communications Common Carriers. 1990/91 Edition. US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.
1.6 Telecommunications organizations
In order to obtain a complete picture of the public telecommunications sector in the country, it is also useful to know the names of the agency responsible for enacting the telecommunications laws of the country (typically a ministry), the entity responsible for supervising and regulating the operators and a list of operators which have been licensed and the services they provide.
Table 5. Telecommunications organizations example
Department of Trade and Industry
Office of Telecommunications (OFTEL)
Mercury Communications, Inc.
1.7 Telecommunications services
It is also useful to know the various telecommunications services available in a country. A sample list is shown in Table
Table 6. Telecommunication services
Alerts user with special tone that there is an incoming call.
Allows calls to be forwarded to another location.
Displays the phone number of the person calling.
Allows more than two people to participate in telephone conversation.
Country Direct Service
Allows residents of a country to obtain operator and calling services from their country when abroad.
800 (Green) Numbers
Calls charged to recipient rather than caller.
Access to Integrated Services Digital Network.
Access to facility for image-based conversations.
Access to videotex network.
Access to an electronic version of the telephone directory.
Access to Internet- or X.400-based electronic mail.
Special service numbers whereby caller pays fee for information provided in addition to any local calling charges.
Access to a radio paging network.
Cellular mobile telephone
Access to mobile network employing cellular technology.
Packet switch data network
Access to data network employing packet switching (e.g., X.25) technology.
Access to world-wide telex network.
High speed data communications
Special data communications services besides dial-up over modem, ISDN or packet-switching network.
Telecommunication credit cards
Availability of credit cards for calling that can be used in pay phones in other countries.
Note: This list is intended to be indicative rather than comprehensive.
Telephone network size and dimension
1. Telephone main lines in operation
A main line is a telephone line connecting the subscriber's terminal equipment to the public switched network and which has a dedicated port in the telephone exchange equipment. This term is synonymous with the term "main station" or "Direct Exchange Line" (DEL) which are commonly used in telecommunication documents. It may not be the same as an access line or a subscriber (see below).
It is understood that:
--the line connected to the telephone exchange may be either an exclusive exchange line or a shared line;
--when a subscriber's equipment has several extensions (private branch exchange), the number of main lines is equal to the number of lines connecting the installation to the telephone exchange, whether these lines are operated in one direction or in both directions.
A subscriber's equipment with extensions is served by 50 lines which connect it to the telephone exchange. The installation has ten operating positions (and therefore ten "operator's stations") and 500 extensions. In accordance with the above definition this installation must be counted as having 50 main lines (i.e. as many as there are lines connecting the subscriber installation to the exchange).
In other words, it will not be counted as having:
either one main line (which would refer to the installation),
or ten main lines (which would correspond to the number of operator's stations),
or 500 main lines (which correspond to the extensions).
A distinction should be noted between subscriber and main line. Subscribers (e.g., customer's which are billed individually) may share the same line (e.g., party line) or use extensions from a private extensions. Thus one main line could serve several subscribers. Some operators are not in a position to report main lines and report the number of subscribers. This should be described in a note; the treatment of payphones should be explained since these normally would be included as main
Some operators report access lines rather than main lines. Access lines typically include extensions on Private Automatic Branch Exchanges (PABXs) that can be billed separately or that have their own telephone number. Operators that report access lines rather than main lines should provide their definition; if possible they should specify the number of extensions counted as
The treatment of high speed lines which contain many voice channels compressed on the same circuit poses a definitional challenge. For instance, a large organization may lease a single 1.5 or 2.0 Mbit/s circuit giving multiple voice channels. In this instance, for purposes of comparison, it would be better to count the number of channels (multiple) rather than the line (single).
2. Total capacity of local public switching exchanges
The total capacity of public switching exchanges corresponds to the maximum number of main lines which can be connected. This number includes, therefore, main lines already connected and main lines available for future connection, including those used for the technical operation of the exchange (test numbers). The measure should be the actual capacity of the system rather than the theoretical potential when the system is upgraded or compression technology is employed.
3. Main lines connected to digital exchanges
The number of main lines connected to digital telephone exchanges. It should be made clear that this indicator does not measure the exchanges which are digital, inter-exchange lines which are digital or digital network termination points, though these may be useful measures in their own right. Respondents should indicate if the main lines included in the definition are only those in operation (indicator 1) or the total capacity (indicator 2).
4. Main lines for residential use
The number of main lines serving households (i.e., lines which are not used for business, government or other professional purposes or as public telephone stations). The definition of "households" which is being applied should be indicated.
5. Main lines in urban areas
The number of main lines in urban areas by the total number of main lines in the country. The definition of urban
should be supplied. See Table 6 for an illustrative example.
Table 6: Urban main lines example
Distribution of Telephones (DELs) between Urban and Rural Areas, India, 31st March 1991
No. of DELs (000 lines)
2 Metro City Districts
15 Major City Districts
281 Other Cities
3396 Towns with population 5000 & above
Note: Villages: (=Population less than 5,000) Source: Department of Communications. Indian Telecommunication Statistics 1991. New Delhi. p. 5.
6. Public pay phones
Public telephones refers to the total number of all types of public telephones including coin and card operated and public telephones in call offices. Public phones installed in private places should also be included as should mobile public telephones. All public telephones regardless of capability (e.g., local calls or national only) should be counted. Where the national definition of
pay phone differs from that above (e.g., by excluding pay phones in private places) this should be noted.
7. Telex subscriber lines
A telex subscriber line is a line connecting the subscriber's terminal equipment to the public telex network and which has a dedicated port in the telex exchange equipment.
8. Cellular mobile telephone subscribers
Subscribers to an automatic public mobile telephone service which provides access to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using cellular technology. This can be further sub-divided by analog and digital systems. Subscribers to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, or radio paging services should not be included.
9. Radio paging subscribers
Users of portable paging devices that can be called from the PSTN.
10. Leased circuits
Leased circuits refer to a two-way link for the exclusive use of a subscriber regardless of the way it is used by the subscriber (e.g., switched subscriber or non-switched, or voice or data). Leased circuits, also referred to as leased lines, can be either national or international in scope. In reporting this indicator, only the number of lines should be included, not the number of
network termination points.
11. Public data network subscribers
The number of subscribers to public data networks including packet-switched networks, circuit-switched networks, and dial-up data networks. Separate indicators can be reported for each. Countries should specify in a note what networks they are including.
12. Videotex subscribers
Subscribers to videotex service (using terminals to communicate with databases over the telephone network).
13. ISDN subscribers
The number of subscribers to the Integrated Services Digital Network. This can be separated by basic rate interface service (i.e., 2B+D, CCITT Rec. I.420) and primary rate.
Quality of Service
14. Waiting list for main lines
Un-met applications for connection to the PSTN which have had to be held over owing to a lack of technical facilities (equipment, lines, etc.). It should be specified what is the normal period for responding to requests for a new line (for instance, no more than two weeks from the date of the request). Separate indicators should be collected for waiting times to other services,
e.g., leased lines, mobile communications, packet switched data communications.
15. Percentage of telephone service faults cleared by next working day
Faults cleared by the next working day refers to the percentage of faults reported to the PSTN that have been corrected by the end of the next working day. (e.g., not including non-working days (weekends)). Separate indictors of fault clearance should be collected for other services.
16. Percentage of calls which fail during the busy hour
The percentage of unsuccessful calls refers to the number of calls that could not be completed due to technical problems for which the operator is responsible (e.g., network congestion, line failure) divided by the total number of calls (successful and unsuccessful). Numbers that are engaged, called party not available or subscriber error should not be included as incomplete
calls. Separate indicators of call failure should be collected for other services. For leased lines, percentage of time the line is un-available to the customer is a better indicator.
17. Telephone main lines faults
The total number of reported faults to main telephone lines for the year. Countries should specify whether faults due to faulty terminal equipment on the customer's premises is included in the indicator or not. Faults which are not the direct responsibility of the public telecommunications operator should probably be excluded.
18. Percentage of calls for operator service answered within 15 seconds
The percentage of calls for operator services answered within 15 seconds. This should include directory inquiry and operator assistance calls. A separate indicator should be collected for response times for emergency service calls.
19. Complaints per 1000 bills
The number of complaints regarding billing for the year divided by the number of bills sent out multiplied by 1000. Countries may want to specify whether the complaints were valid or not.
20. Customer satisfaction rate
A number of telecommunication companies employ customized techniques for gauging customer satisfaction to their services. Explanation regarding the methodology used should be provided in a note.
21. Local telephone traffic
Local traffic consists of effective (completed) traffic exchanged within the local charging area in which the calling station is situated. This is the area within which one subscriber can call another on payment of the local charge (if applicable). This indicator should be reported in the number of calls (messages) and/or minutes. If the indicator is reported in meter units or
pulses, then an appropriate conversion figure to calls/minutes of traffic should be supplied. Each country should include a footnote explaining its definition of the local charging area and indicate the number of such areas and their average size (in km2).
22. National telephone traffic
National trunk (toll) traffic consists of effective (completed) national traffic exchanged with a station outside the local charging area of the calling station. As above, the indicator should be reported as the number of calls and/or minutes of traffic.
23. International telephone traffic
International traffic can be broken down by outgoing traffic (effective (completed) traffic originating in a given country to destinations outside that country) and incoming traffic (traffic originating outside the country with a destination inside the country). The indicator should be reported in number of calls and in minutes of traffic. Bilateral traffic to particular countries should also be reported (see Table 7). The treatment of paid versus free traffic and collect and country direct services should be explained in a note.
Table 7: International bi-lateral telephone traffic
24. National telegrams
The number of charged telegrams which both originate and terminate within the same country. Should be measured as
the number of telegrams rather than the number of words.
25. International outgoing telegrams
The number of charged outgoing full rate telegrams originating in a given country with a destination outside the country. Should be measured as the number of telegrams rather than the number of words.
26. National telex traffic
All the telex traffic which both originates and terminates within the same country. Should be provided as number of messages and minutes.
27. International telex traffic
All the outgoing telex traffic originating in a given country with a destination outside the country. If available, the total incoming telex traffic terminating in a given country should also be reported. Should be provided as number of messages and minutes.
All tariffs should be expressed in local currency at current prices. A separate statement should be made concerning tax rates (e.g., sales tax, value-added tax); whether tax is included or not, at what rate it is levied and whether it can be reclaimed by businesses.
28. Telephone service installation charge
Installation refers to one-off charges involved in applying for basic telephone service. Where there are different charges for different exchange areas the charge for the largest urban area should be used and specified in a note. Where there are different installation charges for residential and business consumers or for first and subsequent lines, these should be stated separately.
29. Telephone service monthly subscription charge
Monthly subscription refers to the recurring fixed charge for subscribing to the PSTN. The charge should cover the rental of the line but not the rental of the terminal (e.g., telephone set) where the terminal equipment market is liberalized. Separate charges should be stated where appropriate, for residential and business subscribers or for first and subsequent lines. If the rental charge includes any allowance for free or reduced rate call units this should be indicated. If there are different charges for different exchange areas, the largest urban area should be used and specified in a note.
30. Telephone service national call charges
National call charges can be separated by local and long distance calls. Local calls should be provided as the cost of a peak rate 3-minute call within the same exchange area using the subscriber's own terminal (i.e., not from a public telephone). In addition the costs of a local call from a public pay telephone should be provided. See Table A-1 for an example of how
long-distance calls within the country might be provided.
31. Telephone service international call charges
This is the cost of a 3-minute direct dialled (i.e., without operator intervention) call from a destination within the country to a destination outside the country. The rate should be supplied for peak rate time calls and off-peak (discount) rate calls (if applicable). The cost should be reported in national currency, with a statement on what taxes are applied. See Table A-2 for an example of how this data might be provided.
32. Mobile communication charges
The connection charge and monthly subscription charge and call charges by distance, duration and time of day/week, for mobile telephone service. Separate information should be provided for analogue (e.g., TACS, NMT, AMPS)) and digital (e.g., GSM) services where applicable (see Table A-1).
33. Leased line charges
Connection charge and monthly rental charge. Costs should be specified for different speeds (e.g., 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 56/64 kbit/s and 1.5/2.0 Mbit/s) and different distances (see Table A-3).
34. Packet-switched data communications network charges
Connection, monthly rental charge and call set-up charges for packet-switched data communication (see Table A-4).
35. Total full-time staff in telecommunications services
Full-time staff employed by telecommunication network operators in the country for the provision of public telecommunication services. Part-time staff should be expressed in terms of full-time staff equivalents. As far as possible, staff not working principally for the provision of telecommunications services (e.g., those working in postal services or broadcast operations) should be excluded. An indication of the percentage of functions carried out by contractors could be specified in a footnote.
Revenue and expenses
All items in this section should be reported in national currency at current prices.
36. Total revenues from all telecommunications services
This is the total revenue earned and is the sum of items 32-40. This should exclude revenues from non-telecommunications services. Revenue (turnover) consists of telecommunications service earnings during the financial year under review. Revenue should not include monies received in respect of revenue earned during previous financial years, neither does it include
monies received by way of loans from governments, or other external investors, nor monies received from repayable subscribers' contributions or deposits.
37. Revenues from telephone connection charges
Revenue received for connection (installation) of telephone service. This may include charges for transfer or cessation of service.
38. Revenues from telephone subscription charges
Revenues from recurring charges for subscription to PSTN including equipment rentals.
39. Revenues from local and national calls
Revenues from local and national long distance telephone calls.
40. Revenues from international calls
Revenues for international telephone calls. This should include charges received from subscribers for placing outgoing calls after deduction of the share of this income to be paid to other organizations for outgoing telecommunication traffic (operators of the incoming and possibly transit countries) and after inclusion of income received from foreign telephone operators for completing
calls originating in a foreign country. Inpayments and outpayments to foreign telecommunication operators should be listed separately.
41. Revenues from telegram and telex services
Revenues for transmittal of telegraphic and telex messages, both national and international.
42. Revenues from other data/text services
Revenues from the data and text services such as data communications (e.g., packet switching) but not telegram or telex.
43. Revenue from leased lines
Revenues from the provision of leased lines (circuits).
44. Revenue from mobile communications services
Revenues from the provision of mobile communications services such cellular, private trunked radio and radio paging. Revenue by each mobile service should be listed separately.
45. Other revenues
Any other revenues not accounted for elsewhere for the provision of telecommunication services. Responders should indicate in a note what are the main sources of other telecommunications revenues.
46. Total current expenditure for all telecommunication services
Current expenditure means expenditure other than investments; it consequently refers to the running of telecommunication services on an annual basis. It is further sub-divided (see 42 to 46 below).
47. Operational expenditure
Operational expenditure would include:
salaries, benefits, etc. of operational staff,
pensions, and other labour costs,
materials for operations including rental of
premises, office supplies etc.,
research and development costs,
marketing and other sales expenses,
indirect, non-income taxes,
labour and material costs of maintenance and
repair of the existing telecommunications
These items should be listed separately.
Interest refers to the financial year for loans associated with fixed and current assets. The sum should be net, that is interest payable by the operator on debts minus the any income gained from investments. Interest received and paid should be listed separately.
49. Income taxes
Taxation refers to taxes on the operator's income, expenditure, profit or capital (e.g., corporation tax, income tax) raised by central or local government. This item does not include pay-related (e.g., social) taxes which should be incorporated under current expenditures.
Depreciation covers the expected devaluation of capital assets insofar as this is regarded as an item of current expenditure. It covers the financial charges made in the year for the loss of value of installed equipment. It is normally calculated on hypotheses based on the useful life of the different categories of equipment.
51. Other expenditures
Any other expenditures not connected with operation, depreciation, interest or taxation. This might include for example, non-recurring charges such as restructuring charges or adjustments due to accounting changes.
The term investment means the expenditure associated with acquiring the ownership of property (including intellectual and
non-tangible property such as computer software) and plant. These include expenditure on initial installations and on additions to
existing installations where the usage is expected to be over an extended period of time. Also referred to as capital
52. Total annual investment in telecommunication including land and buildings
The annual investment for acquiring property and plant.
53. Total annual investment in telecommunication excluding land and buildings
The annual investment for acquiring plant (e.g., switching equipment, transmission equipment, office machinery, motor vehicles) but not including land or buildings.
54. Annual investment in telephone switching equipment.
The annual investment for telephone switching equipment such as local, national (trunk) and international exchanges.
Department of Telecommunications. Various years. Indian Telecommunication Statistics 1991. New Delhi. Useful
example of telecommunications indicator collection for large developing country.
EUROSTAT. 1994. Telecommunication Indicators. Paper distributed at the ICOBS/AS Working Group Meeting,
12-13 January 1994, Luxembourg.
Federal Communications Commission. Various years. Statistics of Communications Common Carriers. Washington D.C. Useful examples of aggregation of data from many operating agencies.
International Monetary Fund. Various years. International Financial Statistics. Washington D.C. Source of
ITU. Various years. Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva. Historical raw data of public telecommunication sector for most countries and territories.
----. Various years. Africa, Americas, Arab States, Asia-Pacific and Europe Telecommunications Indicators. Geneva. Detailed regional coverage with totals and averages.
----. 1994. World Telecommunication Development Report. Geneva. World-wide comparisons.
----. 1994. Direction of Traffic. Geneva. International traffic indicators.
----. 1993. Training Indicators for TTC. Fourth Telecommunication Training Managers Meeting, Maputo, Mozambique, October 1993. Identification of telecommunication staff training indicators.
OECD. 1990. Performance Indicators for Public Telecommunication Operators. Paris. Policy-oriented uses of performance indicators.
OECD. 1993. Communications Outlook 1993. Paris. Policy-oriented uses of performance indicators for OECD
Statistics Canada. 1992. A Model Survey for the Telecommunication Sector. In Voorburg Group, Statistics and Final Report, Seventh Meeting on Service Statistics, Williamsburg, USA, October 1992.
UN Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Various years. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. New York. Source of population, consumer price index and exchange rate data.
World Bank. Various years. World Development Report. Washington D.C. Demographic and macro-economic data.
-----. 1989. Performance Indicators for Telecommunication Services. Telecommunication Technical Note 7. Washington D.C.
ANNEX A. TARIFF SCHEDULES
Table A-1: Sample table for providing national call charges
Charges for PSTN calls at 1 January 1992
Charges in local currency
Rental (per month)
Free units included
Minimum charge per call
Charge per minute
Discounts by time of day or week (as percentage of peak rate)
110, 135, 175 km
Note: The same basic tariff information can be used for the business, residential and mobile communications baskets.
Table A-2: Sample table for providing international call charges
(3 minute direct-dialled call in local currency and including any taxes)
Table A-3: Sample table for leased line charges
Charges for leased lines at 1 January 1992
Charges in local currency
Rental per line per month
Table A-4: Sample table for packet-switch (X.25) data communications
Charges for X.25 Packet Switched data communications at 1 January 1992
Call set-up charge
Charges per segment
Cost per minute
ANNEX B. TELEVISION BROADCASTING DEFINITIONS
The total number of television sets in use. Some countries have a licensing scheme where television sets must be registered.
Since households may have more than one television receiver or may not register, the number of licensed receivers may understate the true number.
The number of households that have television receivers. This is not the same as the number of television receivers since
households can have more than one receiver and other entities besides households may have receivers (e.g., businesses).
Comparable to television licenses as long as there is not widespread avoidance of the licensing scheme.
Homes passed by cable television
The number of homes wired for cable television regardless of whether the occupants are subscribing.
Cable television households / subscribers
The number of cable television subscribers. If countries include Microwave Multi-point Distribution systems (MMDS) or
Satellite Master Antenna Television (SMATV) connections this should be explained in a footnote.
Direct to Home satellite antennas
The number of home satellite antennas that can receive television broadcasting directly from satellites.
Equal to the number of cable television subscribers plus the number of DTH antennas.
Table B-1: Television broadcasting indicators, Switzerland, 1993
Television households (licenses) (TV HH)
Television receivers (estimated) per 100 inhabitants